23 janvier 2012

Brain Research & Reading Instruction

Hempenstall, K. (2006). What brain research can tell us about reading instruction. Learning Difficulties Australia Bulletin, 38(1), 15-16.
Brain-imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have been shedding light recently on how our brain adapts optimally to the tasks of reading and spelling.

When good readers confront text, they can be seen to rely heavily on separate areas in the left side of the brain. These areas are employed cooperatively to convert letters into sounds, fit the sounds together to make words, and to do so fluently. Flourishing students have learned the letters of the alphabet, the sounds that the letters represent, and how the sounds are blended to build words. In the brain images, the three areas light up quite clearly while such students are reading.

With this capacity, the left brain’s parieto-temporal region becomes primed to decode (sound out) words, whether they be known or novel words. Progressively, as the readers see words in print, they start to build a neural model of that word. After they've correctly decoded a word a number of times, their neural model is an exact replica of the printed word. It specifies the way the word is pronounced, the way it's spelled, and what it means. In an accurate neural model, all these features are bonded together.

They clarify and store these new internal representations in the occipito-temporal region. When that word becomes represented in the occipito-temporal region, its recognition subsequently becomes automatic and instant - in about one sixth of a second. This is faster than one can predict the upcoming word. When this process occurs, students begin to display rapid, effortless word recognition rather than the slower sounding out strategy.

It’s tempting of course to suggest that children not be taught to sound out because it isn’t the way skilled readers are seen to respond to print. However, you can’t access the occipito-temporal region without first building up the parieto-temporal region. On average, from 4-14 accurate sounding-outs will create the firm links necessary. For some children, it may take many times that number – not all children have strong phonological skills (a talent for discerning small units of sound). Either a genetic component or an instructional component may be involved in their lack of progress.

Those who struggle to read do not use the same brain regions for reading. Instead, they create an alternative neural pathway, reading mostly with regions on the right side of the brain - areas not well suited for reading. It is purely a compensatory strategy involving the visual centres of the right hemisphere - looking at words as if they were pictures. Little activity is observed in the phonological areas of the left hemisphere where capable readers’ activity is dominant. The brains of people who can't sound out words look different - there is less blood flow to the language centres of the brain.

If this sequential developmental process (from sounding out to whole word recognition) does not occur, then children will be forced to employ less rapid and accurate systems such as prediction from context, guessing from pictures, and guessing from the first letter. Up to 40% of children will discover the alphabetic principle for themselves quite readily - regardless of instruction. About 30% will get there, but slowly, and about 20-30% will not achieve it without intensive, appropriate direct teaching.

We now understand that the brain has the quality of plasticity. It responds to experiences that stimulate activity in particular areas of the brain, thereby facilitating the growth of neural connections in and between those active regions. That is why practice makes permanent. Practising productive reading strategies forms and strengthens task-optimal neural connections that enhance subsequent reading development. In the same way, routinely engaging in ineffective strategies similarly builds circuits in the brain not optimal to the task. These routines are not easy to break as students grow older, perhaps because between ages 5 to 10 there’s a pruning process that erases the neural cells in the brain that remain under-utilised and unconnected. Forming neural links for language is relatively easy up to about age 6, and achievable though more effortful after that time.

The good news is that certain teaching strategies can alter this pattern of brain activation. A number of recent studies have indicated that about 60 hours of structured intensive daily phonics teaching alters the way the brain responds to print. Less right hemisphere involvement occurs, accompanied by more left hemisphere phonologically-based activity as reading improves. These new MRI images now correspond more closely to the pattern displayed by good readers. Importantly, in a study in 2004, the occipito-temporal region continued to develop 1 year after the intervention had ended. The outcomes included increased fluency, accuracy, and reading comprehension.

A recent MRI study of spelling produced similar outcomes. The brain activity of struggling spellers was discernibly different to that of competent spellers. However, when systematic spelling instruction was provided, spelling improved and the MRI profiles altered, becoming more like those of good spellers. Beginning with a need for phonological knowledge, the brain of the emergent speller (given adequate practice opportunities) establishes a new organizational pattern known as an autonomous orthographic lexicon. It enables automatic, rapid responses, without the phonological encoding previously necessary. However, English is a morphophonemic language, and expert spelling encompasses a further knowledge form. It involves an understanding of root words, affixes, and how they are assembled. This third interrelated level is morphological. Their intervention was based upon the Direct Instruction program, Spelling Through Morphographs.

These interventions require work and practice to achieve such positive outcomes, but many skills are hard won in our lives. Why should we expect these crucial abilities to arrive incidentally?

The brain imaging studies have also shown how difficult and exhausting is the task of reading for struggling students. These students have been shown to use up to five times as much energy as do fluent readers when reading. It is unsurprising then that they do not choose to read, and may become actively resistant to the task. Unfortunately, slow early progress predicts a decline in academic progress generally across their primary and, even more dramatically, in their secondary career, as they increasingly lose access to the curriculum.

The brain imaging research is fascinating, perhaps because it offers a glimpse of what appears to be happening when we teach effectively, and students learn something new. However, we don’t actually need this information about which areas of the brain tend to be active when most people engage skilfully or otherwise in a task. We can always assess their competence directly using behavioural assessments, such as with reading tests. Observing changed brain function consequent upon effective instruction can be affirming to the teacher, but really, what did we think was happening during learning? Was it the kidneys we thought we were affecting?

Another interesting brain imaging issue relates to the oft heard comment “All children learn differently”. It is difficult to argue with such an assertion, partly because it is difficult to operationalise it. However, it usually presented as though it were self-evidently true, despite a lack of supporting evidence. In similar vein, there is a whole industry devoted to the need to attend to children’s learning styles, again a notion lacking in empirical support. Within the broader context of whether humans’ uniqueness or commonality truly defines them, it would appear that, at least for literacy skills, competence arises for each of us in much the same manner.

The National Enquiry into the Teaching of Literacy has directed our attention toward the findings of scientific research. These findings that can make a huge difference to the many students for whom the reading task is made unnecessarily difficult, whether the cause is due to brain anomalies (very few) or instructional inadequacy (the vast majority).

At such a time when real reform is possible, it is unfortunate that some politicians and teacher organisations decry both the need for change and the strong evidence upon which the recommendations are based. It is our children's future at stake. Time to move on this.

Sources:
Daigneault, S. (2002). Pure severe dyslexia after a perinatal focal lesion: Evidence of a specific module for acquisition of reading. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 256-265.

Dixon, R., & Engelmann, S. (2001). Spelling through morphographs. Columbus, OH : SRA/McGraw-Hill


Halfon, N., Schulman, E., & Hochstein, M. (2001). Brain development in early childhood. In N. Halfon, E, Schulman, & M. Hochstein (Ed.), Building community systems for young children (pp. 1-24). UCLA Center for Healthier Children Families and Communities.

Pugh, K. P., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Katz, L., Frost, S. J., Lee, J. R., Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B .A. (2002). Neuroimaging studies of reading development and reading disability. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 240-249.

Richards, T.L., Aylward, E.H., Berninger, V.B., Field, K.M., Grimme, A.C., Richards, A.L., & Nagy, W. (2006). Individual fMRI activation in orthographic mapping and morpheme mapping after orthographic or morphological spelling treatment in child dyslexics. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 19(1), 56-86.

Shaywitz, S.E. (2003) Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Shaywitz, B.A., Shaywitz, S.E., Blachman, B.A., Pugh K.R., Fulbright, R.K., Skudlarski, P., Mencl, W.E., Constable, R.T., Holahan, J.M., Marchione, K.E., Fletcher, J.M., Lyon, G.R., & Gore, J.C. (2004). Development of left occipitotemporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically-based intervention. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 926-33.

Shaywitz, B.A., Shaywitz, S.E., Pugh, K.R., Mencl, W.E., Fulbright, R.K., Skudlarski, P., Constable, R.T., Marchione, K.E., Fletcher, J.M., Lyon, G.R., & Gore, J.C. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia, Biological Psychiatry, 52(2), 101-110. Retrieved November 11, 2004, from: http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/aug2002/nichd-02.htm

Sciences cognitives et lecture 
sur le blog ...

Kerry Hempenstall 
B.Sc., Dip.Ed., Dip.Soc.Studies, Dip.Ed.Psych., Ph.D. MAPsS.
 http://www.rmit.edu.au/staff/kerry_hempenstall
 Contents
Professional Background and Interests
Invited referee for journals
Awards
Recent publications and presentations
Useful Links
Contact Information
Workshop Notes for Preventing & Overcoming Reading Failure: Programs and Practices Melbourne University Private, Hawthorn June 22, 2007. Audio: Session 1 (mp3), Session 2 (mp3) and Session 3 (mps).

Professional Background and Interests

I have long provided in-service education to schools and other educational interest groups on request. I gained my PhD for a thesis on the role of phonemic awareness in reading development. For a copy of my thesis.
Children of the Code project
A most fascinating site over the past several years is the Children of the Code project. It aims for a reformation in how our society thinks about the code and the challenges involved in learning to read it. Read numerous interviews with the major researchers in literacy. They discuss: the history of the code and its effects on the world around and within us; the cognitive, emotional, academic, and social challenges involved in learning to read; how the structure of the code effects learning to read it; what the brain sciences are teaching us about learning and reading; how teachers and parents can help their children learn to read better. Recently, an informative series of videos has been added.

Invited Referee for Journals

  • Member of Editorial Board, Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities
  • Member of Editorial Board, Journal of Direct Instruction
  • Behaviour Change
  • Educational Psychology
  • Australasian Journal of Special Education

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Awards

  • 2008:RMIT Media Awards (Science, Engineering, and Health College).
  • 2007: RMIT Media Awards (Science, Engineering, and Technology).
  • 2007: RMIT University Certificate of Achievement, University Teaching Awards.
  • 2007: Science, Engineering, and Technology SET Student Choice Teaching Award.
  • 2006: Mona Tobias Award. Learning Difficulties Australia publishes the Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities.
“This Award recognises a person who has made an outstanding contribution to Australian education for people with learning difficulties, through leadership, research, practice, or teacher and community education.”
  • 2004: Excellence in Education Award for Research (Association for Direct Instruction, Oregon, USA),
“In recognition of a continued commitment to standards of excellence in education, and in an enduring effort to advance the quality of schooling for all students.”
  • 2004: RMIT Media Awards (Long Term Contributor).
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Recent publications and presentations

Book Chapter

Hempenstall, K. (2004). The importance of effective instruction. In N.E. Marchand-Martella, T.A. Slocum, and R.C. Martella (Eds.), Introduction to Direct Instruction (pp.1-27). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Refereed Journal Articles

Hempenstall, K. (2009). Research-driven reading assessment: Drilling to the core. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 14(1), 17-52.
Watson, T., & Hempenstall, K. (2008). Effects of a computer-based program on the reading skills of Kindergarten and Grade One students. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(3), 258-274. Retrieved, June 2, from http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet24/ajet24.html
Hempenstall, K. (2008). Corrective Reading: An evidence-based remedial reading intervention. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 32(1), 23-54.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). Will education ever embrace empirical research? Direct Instruction News, 7(2), 12-20.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). Literacy research: The Australian and international context. Refereed paper presented in symposium: “Changing times - the recent Literacy revolution in Australia: Policy changes, political implications, and the new literacy agenda for schools”. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference Engaging Pedagogies, Adelaide 27th - 30th November, 2006.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). What does evidence-based practice in education mean?Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11(2), 83-92.
Infantino, J., & Hempenstall, K. (2006). Effects of a decoding program on a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 30(2), 126-144.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). The use of a Direct Instruction reading program to tutor an adult with a moderate intellectual. Direct Instruction News, 6(2), 6-11.
Carmichael, R. & Hempenstall, K. (2006). Building upon Sound. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11(1), 3-16.
Hempenstall, K (2005). How might a stage model of reading development be helpful in the classroom? Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 10 (3 & 4), 35-52.
Hempenstall, K (2005). The Whole Language-Phonics controversy: An historical perspective. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 10 (3 & 4), 19-33 .
Hempenstall, K. (2005, Fall). Aiding parents to teach reading at home: The RMIT Clinic approach.. Direct Instruction News, 5 (3), 11-26 .
Hempenstall, K. (2005). Who is to blame? Direct Instruction News, 54(1), 16-31.
Hempenstall, K. (2004). How might a stage model of reading development be helpful in the classroom? Educational Psychology, 24(6), 727-751.
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Education for language minority students: Recent events. Direct Instruction News, 4(1), 10-22.
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Beyond phonemic awareness: What educational role for other phonological processes? Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 9(1), 3-15.
Hempenstall, K. (2003). The three-cueing system: Trojan horse? Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 8(3), 15-23.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). Phonological processing and phonics: Towards an understanding of their relationship to each other and to reading development. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7(1), 4-29.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). The Three-Cueing System: Help or Hindrance. Direct Instruction News, 2(2), 42-51.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). School-based reading assessment: Looking for vital signs. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 6, 26-35.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Special Issue: FOCUS: The RMIT Bundoora Australia Direct Instruction Model KerryHempenstall, Department of Psychology and Intellectual Disability Studies. Effective School Practices, 18(1), 9-55.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Miscue analysis: A critique. Effective School Practices, 17(3), 85-93.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). The role of phonemic awareness in beginning reading: A review. Behaviour Change, 14(4), 1-14.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). The whole language-phonics controversy: An historical perspective. Educational Psychology, 17, 399-418.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). A model for reading assessment and intervention in the RMIT Psychology Clinic. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1(2), 18-27.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). The whole language approach to reading: An empiricist critique. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1(3), 22-32.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Whole language takes on golf. Effective School Practices, 15(2), 32-33.

Non refereed journal articles and other publications

Negri, L.M., Smith, D.S., Hempenstall, K., Schuster, S., Little, E., & Wilks, R. (2007). Enhancing clinical competence: The development of an assessment instrument and multimedia instructional package.Ed Magazine, 2(2). Melbourne: RMIT University.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). The neglected role of expertise. Directions in Education, 16(12), 22/6/07
Hempenstall, K. (2007). Evidence-based practices? Directions in Education, 16(5), 23/3/07
Hempenstall, K. (2007). The teaching of literacy: Reflecting a profession without a strong foundation. Submission to the Sena.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). What future for pastoral care. Education Review, pp. 8, 9, 14/2/2007
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Practice makes permanent. The Age, Education Opinion, p.16, 17/7/2006.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). What brain research can tell us about reading instruction. Learning Difficulties Australia Bulletin, 38(1), 15-16.
Hempenstall, K. (2005). Literacy for all is a noble goal: The hurdle of teacher mistraining. Learning Difficulties Australia Bulletin, 37(3), 11-15.
Hempenstall, K. (2005). Spelling it out. Education Review, 15(37), 4. 21/9/2005.
Hempenstall, K. (2005). The quiet crisis of upper-level illiteracy. The Age, Education Opinion, p.5, 6/6/2005.
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Promise of a new chapter for readers. The Australian, Opinion, p.15, 10/11.
Hempenstall, K. (2003, Sept). Is it really necessary to teach reading in secondary school? The Newsletter of the Australian Centre for Youth Literature, 3, 6-7.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). Reading between the lines. The Daily Advertiser, Wagga.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). Reading between the lines. Canberra Times, p. 27/2/02.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Brief the public on air marshals. The Herald Sun, Opinion, p.19, 21/12.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Security brought to a higher plane. The Australian, Opinion, p.9, 21/12.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Hark Your Greeting Card Sing. Readers Digest, p. 156, Dec. 2001.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Why we feel the way we do: Some psychological consequences for Australia of the US tragedy. RMIT Openline, 9(2), [On Line]
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Concert review. Melbourne Jazz Scene, 1(4), 3.
Hempenstall, K. (2000, Spring). Playing games: Vicarious satisfaction vs violent thrill. Australian Educator, 27, 26-27.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Video violence: More than just playing around? RMIT Openline, 8(2), 8.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). The role of phonics in learning to read: A rejoinder to Emmitt's critique. Fine Print, 22(4), 19-25.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Hey, stop, children, what's that sound? The Australian, Nov 8, p.21.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). The role of phonics in learning to read: What does recent research say? Fine Print, 22(1), 7-12.
Hempenstall, K. (1999, Feb 17). Reading between the lines. The Age, Education, p.5.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Giving grim tale a happy ending. The Australian, Oct 4, p.19.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Alarm over cyber tots. Herald Sun, July 14, pp.1, 4.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Hey, stop, children, what’s that sound? The Australian, Nov 8, p.21.Book chapter: Invited article in "Learning Disabilities", Issues for the Nineties, 56, 4-5. NSW: Spinney Press
Hempenstall, K. (1999, Feb 17). Reading between the lines. The Age, Education, p.5. This unedited version was entitled: Reading problems: The causal role of the education system. Edited version published as: "Reading between the lines", Age, Education, p.5, 17/2/99
Hempenstall, K. (1998, Feb 3). Yum, a word in my soup. The Age, Education Age, p.A13.
Hempenstall, K. (1997) Whole language takes on golf. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2(1), 28-29.
Hempenstall, K. (1997, Feb 18). A reading by osmosis guide. The Age, Education Age p.2
Hempenstall, K. (1997, March 7). Whole language takes on golf. Ottawa Citizen, p. A16
Hempenstall, K. (1997, Jun 10). A costly approach on how-to-read. The Age, Education Age p.2
Hempenstall, K. (1997). Whole language takes on golf. Selected Readings on School Reform, 1(1), 148.
Hempenstall, K. (1997, Sep 24). Reviving phonetic techniques. The Whittlesea Post. pp.1,9.
Hempenstall, K. (1996, Sep.17). Can the poor afford psychotherapy? The Age, p.14
Hempenstall, K. (1996, Oct.22). Reading help is a matter of justice. The Age, Education Age p. 2
Hempenstall, K. (1996, Nov 5). Tale of two teachers. The Age, Education Age, pp. 5,11
Hempenstall, K. (1996, Oct 15). Help for learning difficulties. Times-Spectator, p.6.
Hempenstall, K. (1996) Whole language takes on golf. From Left To Write. Orton Dyslexia Society (Wisconsin Branch), Fall/Winter, p.2.
Hempenstall, K. (1995, Mar. 28). Tackling the guarantee of early failure at reading. The Age, p.8.
Hempenstall, K. (1995). The role of phonics in learning to read: What does the research say? Specific Learning Disabilities Association of South Australia Incorporated, Speld News, Sept, 4 -7.
Hempenstall, K. (1995, Dec 8). Socially constructed category? Invited paper for Directions in Education, 4(19).
Hempenstall, K. (1995, Sept.). Words should be seen and heard. Invited paper for SLD Bulletin, p.2-6.
Hempenstall, K. (1995, Dec.). Tackling the guarantee of early failure at reading. Invited paper for SLD Bulletin, p.25-27.
Hempenstall, K. (1995, Dec.). The Whole Language approach to reading. Invited paper for SLD Bulletin, p.28-49.
Rottura, R. & Hempenstall, K. (1994). Parental views on the integration of their children with intellectual disabilities into regular schools in Victoria. Interaction, 7(5), 8-11.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). The role of phonics in learning to read: What does the research say? Speld, 25(2), 10-11
Hempenstall, K. (1994, Oct.11). Words should be heard and seen. The Age, p.18

On-Line Sources

Hempenstall, K. (2008). Reading: A case for change.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). The teaching of literacy: Reflecting a profession without a strong foundation. Education News. http://ednews.org/articles/18737/1/The-teaching-of-literacy-Reflecting-a-profession-without-a-strong-foundation/P
Hempenstall, K. (2007). What's the greatest innovation? Pfizer survey. http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/innovationsurvey/article/3219/
Hempenstall, K. (2006). The three-cueing model: Down for the count? Education News. www.ednews.org/articles/4084/1/T
Hempenstall, K. (2006). What inspired you? http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/inspired/article/1445/
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Balanced golf instruction. Education News
Hempenstall, K. (2005). Just the words, ma’am. Organization for Quality Education, Sep 2005, p.5
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Abracadrabra phonics: Balanced magic. Education News 6/9/2004. Retrieved 6/9/2004 from Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (2004). The potential power of instruction. Education News 6/3/2004. Retrieved 6/3/2004 from Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (2003). Phonemic awareness: What does it mean? A 2003 update Retrieved 3/6/2004 from Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). How might stage models of reading development be helpful in the classroom? Education News 6/9/2001. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Help! I'm well beyond early intervention. Can you help my reading too? Education News 19/6/2001. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Literacy for all is a noble goal: The significant interaction of learner history and teacher style. Education News 2/5/2001. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Yum, a word in my soup. I remember being unable to read. Education News19/4/2001. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Some issues in phonics instruction. Education News 26/2/2001. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Two contrasting classrooms: Tale of two teachers. Education News 13/2/2001. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Freud's seminal contributions to learning styles. Education News 1/10/2000. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Beyond phonemic awareness: The role of other phonological abilities. Education News 5/9/2000. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Beginning and remedial reading instruction: The intertwined role of phonemic awareness and phonics. Education News 21/7/2000. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Video violence: More than playing around. [On-line].
Hempenstall, K. (No date). The Matthew effects. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Miscue analysis: A critique. [On-line]. Available: Dr. Kerry Hempenstall Columnist EdNews.org
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Whole language takes on golf.
Hempenstall, K. (No date).The role of phonics [On-line].
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Words should be heard and seen. [On-line].
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Tackling the guarantee of early failure at reading. [On-line].
Hempenstall, K. (No date). Reading help is a matter of justice. [On-line].
Hempenstall, K. (No date). A costly approach on how to read. [On-line].

Media

2010 Radio interview: Tertiary bullying 18/03/2010
2010 Newspaper interview: Victorian teachers, parents and youth workers back calls for campaign against knife culture Elissa Doherty, Herald Sun, February 17, 2010
2010 Radio interview: Bushfire. Drive with Lindy Burns, Radio 774 3pm-6pm.
2009 Newspaper interview: Professor hits back at critics The Australian Higher Education 27 May
2009 Newspaper interview: Different reading methods on trial 13 Mar The Australian Higher Education
2009 Newspaper interview: The Question: Should I become a volunteer? Sunday Age, p.24, 18 January
2008 TV interview: Hero worshipping Channel 10 (Sydney) Nine AM with David and Kim, 27 October.
2008 Magazine interview: Importance of play Sun Sat 18/10
2008 Magazine interview: Expert queries Naplan. Education Review, 18(7), October, p.1, 3.
2008 Radio interviews: Revamp of the English curriculum. News Gold 104, Mix FM, Cruise Adelaide, 17/10/2008.
2008 Newspaper interview: Herald Sun Mark of respect for boys p. 38, 16 October 2008
2008 Magazine interview: Are you a helicopter parent? Good Health and Medicine, October, p.82-85.
2008 Newspaper interview: Tests score high marks Herald Sun, 20 September, p.10
2008 Radio interview: Naplan testing. Radio National, 17/9/2008.
2008 Radio interview: Naplan testing. Radio 2CC Mike Welsh, 16/9/2008.
2008 Radio interview: Naplan testing. Radio 2UE News, 15/9/2008.
2008 Radio interview: Naplan testing. Ultra106Five Hobart David Wood 15/9/2008.
2008 Radio interview: Naplan testing. MMM Brisbane News 15/9/2008.
2008 Newspaper interview: Friends with money. The Sunday Age, p.15, Also Sun-Herald, 7/9/2008
2008 Radio interview: Kids pocket money. Radio 3AW Drivetime Derryn Hinch, 13/8/2008.
2008 Newspaper interview: Reading: Case for a change Education Age, p.7, 4/8/2008
2008 Newspaper interview: Praise for the Baby-maker. Progress Leader, 29 July, p.14
2008 Magazine interview: The great homework debate. Good Health and Medicine, June 2008 p. 74-76.
2008 Newspaper interview: Dore's dive hits parents in pocket Oakleigh Monash/Springvale Dandenong Leader, p.7, 11/6/2008
2008 Newspaper interview: 'Miracle cure' group in Hawthorn collapses. Progress Leader, p.1, 10/6/2008.
2008 Newspaper interview: Scare tactics. The Age, 2/6/2008 Page 14.
2008 Radio interview: Demise of Dore. 1206 2CC, Canberra Mike Welsh, 29/5/2008.
2008 Newspaper interview: Quest for answers. Progress Leader, p.1, 20 May 2008
2008 Newspaper interview: Rudd's tests panned. Daily Telegraph, p.17, 15 May 2008
2008 Radio interview: National Assessment. ABC Radio QLD Craig Zonca, 13/5/2008.
2008 Radio interview: National Assessment. Radio 2UE Sydney Steve Price, 13/5/2008.
2008 Newspaper interview: Questions over schools test. The Age, p.5, 13/5/2008
2008 Radio interview: National Assessment. 666 ABC, Canberra Louise Maher, 12/5/2008.
2008 Radio interview: National Assessment. Curtin FM news, Perth 12/5/2008.
2008 Newspaper interview: Doctor slams Dore. Progress Leader, 6 May 2008, p.1.
2008 Newspaper interview: Parents sounded out on reading problems. Herald Sun, 15/4/2008, p.12.
2008 Newspaper interview: A new line on reading. The Age, Education Age, 14/4/2008, p. 2.
2008 Radio interview: Reading difficulties. ABC Radio National News 8/4/2008
2008 Radio interview: Reading difficulties. Curtin FM, Perth 7/4/2008
2008 Radio interview: Smacking children. Leon Delaney 2SM, Sydney 22/2/2008
2008 Radio interview: Should smacking be given the back-hander? Steve Chase Drivetime ABC 774 21/2/2008
2008 Radio interview: Smacking children. ABC Radio National News 21/2/2008
2008 Radio interview: Smacking children. MMM, Brisbane 21/2/2008
2008 Newspaper interview: Research suggests smacking is ineffective as a parental discipline strategy. Australian Women Online 22/2/2008 http://www.australianwomenonline.com/?p=243
2008 Radio interview: ABC Regional Statewide. Bonita Brown. Reading to children. 31 January 2008
2008 Newspaper interview: Read it again, with passion. Sydney Morning Herald, 31 January 2008, p.6.
2008 Newspaper interview: Birthday surprise is a global twin-win. MX., 17 January 2008, p.6
2008 Newspaper interview: Studies confound left-wing teachers. The Australian, 11 January 2008.
2007 Magazine interview: Male & female brain. New Idea, Sep 07.
2007 Newspaper interview: Just kidding around. MX (Australia), 4 December 2007.
2007 Newspaper interview: Just kidding around. Sydney MX, 26 November 2007.
2007 Newspaper interview: Mankind is saved by a whisker. MX, 1/11/2007, p.5
2007 Newspaper interview: Guys get more than they bargained for . Sydney MX, 1 November 2007
2007 Newspaper interview: Movember. Mx., 1/11/2007, p.5
2007 Radio interview: Gap. Radio 3AW, Ernie Sigley, 17/9/07.
2007 Newspaper interview: Gap widens, kids leap. Sun Herald Sept 17 p.13
2007 Newspaper interview: Schools produce illiterate’ students. The Age, 14/9/2007, p. 1, 2.
2007 Radio interview: Psychology of kissing. Radio JJJ, Robbie Buck, 4/9/07.
2007 Newspaper interview: Land of eternal youth. Brisbane Times p.10 27/8/2007
2007 Newspaper interview: Land of eternal youth. Sunday Sun Herald p.10 26/8/2007
2007 Newspaper interview: Once upon a time parents used to read books to kids. Herald Sun p.29 22/8/2007
2007 Newspaper interview: Pupils fail to spell it out. Herald Sun, p.34. 5/8/2007
2007 Newspaper interview: Back to basics for misguided educators. Inquirer, Weekend Australian 21/07/2007 p. 29
2007 Newspaper interview: Literacy left to parents. Education Age, 17/7/2007, p. 6.
2007 Newspaper interview: Curfew will test Didak. Mx., 5/7/2007, p.15
2007 Magazine interview: Stars lifestyle changes. Red Magazine,
2007 Newspaper interview: No help for bad readers: Dean. The West Australian, p.3, 22 June.
2007 Radio interview: Ideology in the classroom. Radio SBS Melbourne. 23/5/07.
2007 Newspaper interview: How ideology rules the classroom. The Australian, 23/5/2007, p.1, 10.
2007 Newspaper interview: Literacy group rails against reform delay. Education Age, 14/5/2007, p. 2.
2007 Radio interview: Sledging. Radio SIM. Melbourne. 2/5/07.
2007 Radio interview: Literacy and popular culture. Radio4EB Brisbane QUT. Queensland. 2/5/07.
2007 Radio interview: Phobias. Radio 2FM Dubbo. 26/4/07.
2007 Newspaper interview: Literally bad Herald-Sun 24/4/2007, p.36
2007 Newspaper interview: Star Exposure. Sydney MX, 18 April 2007, p.1
2007 Newspaper interview: Literacy body rejects criticism. The Australian, 7/4/2007, p.1, 4
2007 Newspaper interview: Literacy project attacked. The Australian, 5/4/2007, p.1, 4.
2007 Newspaper interview: Kids doing hard yards. Moonee Valley Leader, 19/03/2007 p.1.
2007 Newspaper interview: What future for pastoral care? Education Review, 16(9), 8-9.
2007 Newspaper interview: Can’t write, can’t spell ... Education Age, 26/2/2007, p. 4-5.
2007 Newspaper interview: The answer - and lots of questions. Sydney Morning Herald 15/2/2007
2007 Newspaper interview: Confidence cocktails. Mx Melbourne 14/2/2007 p.1.
2007 Newspaper interview: Even a violent death fails to silence the crocodile hunter. The Times February 12, 2007. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article1368819.ece
2007 Newspaper interview: Bindi's a burr to saviours. Mx Melbourne 6/2/2007 p.5
2007 Newspaper interview: Bindi's website warriors - Irwin call. MX Sydney, 6/2/2007
2007 Newspaper interview: Commuter Kids. Herald Sun, p.25-26. 27/1/2007
2007 Newspaper interview: What happened to manners? Herald Sun, p.21-22. 6/1/2007
2006 Radio interview: 'Cure' for dyslexia comes under fire . Radio National News. 11/12/06.
2006 Newspaper interview: 'Cure' for dyslexia comes under fire. The Sunday Age, p.4, 10/12/2006
2006 Newspaper interview: Schools debate rocks along. The Melbourne Times, pp.8-10, 18/10/2006
2006 Newspaper interview: Class wars. Heidelberg Weekly, pp.12-14, 17/10/2006
2006 Newspaper interview: Bindi breaks down. MX, p.1, 26/9/2006.
2006 Newspaper interview: Top award for lecturer. Bundoora, Lalor, Kilmore Star. 6/9/2006 http://www.starnewsgroup.com.au/story/24337
2006 Newspaper interview: The games people play in the wee hours. The Age Green Guide, p.7, 17/8/2006
2006 Newspaper interview: No scientific link between moon and behaviour, psychologist says. . Cranbourne Leader, p. 5, 9/8/2006.
2006 Newspaper interview: Child's play. Sunday Herald Sun, Life p.109 13/8/2006.
2006 Radio interview: Charms. QLD 4AB. 15/6/06.
2006 Newspaper interview: Literacy squads hit turbulence The Age (Education) p.3, 5/62006
2006 Newspaper interview: Bullying. MX, 11/4/2006
2006 Newspaper interview: Youth detention facility. Cranbourne Leader, 21/3/2006.
2006 Radio interview: Community fear of stabbings. Drivetime 774, 6/3/06.
2006 Newspaper interview: Feelgood love story. Sunday Telegraph, 5/3/2006.
2006 Radio interview: Phonics. Adelaide 5AA. 12/1/06.
2005 Newspaper interview: Bombs, again. The Age, Creative and Media, Inside Edge p.4, 10/10/2005
2005 Newspaper interview: Pop goes the Bard. The Age, Education, p.6, 3/10/2005.
2005 Newspaper interview: Labor and the lobe. The Age, Creative and Media, Inside Edge p.4, 26/9/2005
2005 Radio interview: Personalised number plates. 3AW. 15/97/05
2005 Newspaper interview: Millions can’t read. The Sunday Herald Sun, p.27, 4/9/2005
2005 Newspaper interview: A bunch of kids really. The Age, Creative and Media, Inside Edge p.4, 15/8/2005
2005 Newspaper interview: Push for class visits. Moonee Valley Leader, 15/8/2005
2005 Newspaper interview: Spell it out: A problem skyrockets. The Education Age, p.7, 25/7/2005.
2005 Newspaper interview: Kennett sorry for his `bipolar' diagnosis. The Australian, p.4, 1/7/2005.
2005 Radio interview: Volunteering. ABC Mid North Coast Radio, 22/6/05.
2005 Newspaper interview: A perfect pick-me-up - Volunteering boosts health and love life. Sunday Telegraph, p.31, 12/6/2005.
2005 Newspaper interview: Ready, set, love, failure: On-set romance almost never sells tickets. CNN. 10/6/2005 http://edition.cnn.com/2005/SHOWBIZ/06/08/eye.ent.smith/
2005 Newspaper interview: War over literacy still taken as read. The West Australian, June 8, p.43.
2005 Newspaper interview: Popcorn passion. Sydney Herald Sun, p.10, May 29 2005.
2005 Newspaper interview: Saver Sucker Spendthrift or Scrooge. Melbourne’s Child, p.19, April 2005.
2005 Newspaper interview: ?. The Melbourne Times, p., 6/4/2005.
2005 Newspaper interview: Not as simple as ABC. The Age, p.11, 3/3/2005.
2005 Newspaper interview: Schools out. The Bulletin, p.28-31, 1/3/2005.
2004 Newspaper interview: Phonics needs more than lip-service. The Australian, p.16, 22/11/2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Reading between the lines. The Age, Education, p.6-7. 8/11/2004
2004 Newspaper interview: Teach the children well: School charts different course. p. 1, 15A, Southport Pilot, North Carolina 8/9/2004.
2004 Radio interview: School hols. ABC Night show. 5/7/04
2004 Newspaper interview: Memory. Readers Digest, July 2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Game theories. Big Issue, 14/7/2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Harry Potter film. SPress Magazine, 10/6/2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Writing journals. MX Magazine, 1/6/2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Taking poor readers at their word. Education Age, p.5, 7/6/2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Player depression. The Age, p., 27/5/2004
2004 Newspaper interview: No deficit of disorder. The Australian, p.11, 25/5/2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Putting science into art of teaching. The Australian, p.14, 24/5/2004.
2004 Radio interview: ADHD. 3AW Breakfast Radio. 24/5/04
2004 Newspaper interview: Stumbling block. Australian Financial Review, Education, Pg 31 10/5/2004
2004 Newspaper interview: Worrying signs of the times. The Age, Insight; Pg. 9, 1/5/ 2004
2004 Newspaper interview: A sound approach to reading skills. The Australian, p.22, 21/4/2004.
2004 Newspaper interview: Paralysed by choice? Sun Herald, Sunday Life; p.30, 11/4/ 2004
2004 Newspaper interview: But I just want to buy a toothbrush. The Age, Sunday Life; p.29, 11/4/ 2004
2004 Newspaper interview: ?. New Idea.
2004 Newspaper interview: Tunnel vision fine if there's light at the end of it. Sydney Morning Herald. p.11, 17/4/2004
2004 Newspaper interview: Hey, little spender. Sunday Age, Agenda; p.10, 4/4/ 2004
2004 Newspaper interview: Fighting fear. The Weekend Australian, C.30, 27/3/2004.
2004 Radio interview: Homesickness. ABC Radio Western Plains, Dubbo. 22/3/04
2004 Newspaper interview: Teach your child money sense. Good Medicine, pp 64-66, 16/3/04
2004 Newspaper interview: Female firebug. Cranbourne Leader, 2/2004
2004 Newspaper interview: Behind closed doors. Sydney Morning Herald, Radar, p. 4, 11/2/2004
2004 Newspaper interview: My life and how I live it. Sydney Morning Herald, Radar, p. 6, 14/1/2004
2004 Newspaper interview: Married to the job. Sydney Morning Herald, Radar, p.4, 7/1/2004
2003 Radio interview: Smith Family appeal. ABC Radio Gippsland, 9/12/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Smith Family book appeal aims to improve literacy. Sunraysia Daily, p.5, 5/12/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Little hope of reality check at our universities The Age, p.3, 8/12/2003
2003 Radio interview: Smith family appeal. MMM, 3/12/03
2003 Radio interview: Smith family appeal. ABC News Radio, 3/12/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Test for mental fitness. Herald Sun, p. 13, Sat, Nov 22.
2003 Newspaper interview: Mind games Herald Sun, p. 27, 28, Sat, Nov 22.
2003 Newspaper interview: Test for mental fitness. Herald Sun, p. 13, Sat, Nov 22.
2003 Newspaper interview: Mind games Herald Sun, p. 27, 28, Sat, Nov 22.
2003 Newspaper interview: Diffusion of responsibility. Sydney Morning Herald, p.1, 19/11/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Phone answering. MX, p.1, 10/11/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Teen torch horror. SPress magazine, 1(25), pp. 1-2, 21/10/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Slow progress on literacy no surprise The Age Education, p.3, 20/10/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Nation of worriers. Sunday Tasmanian, 19/10/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Aussie parents worriers. Sunday Mail (SA), 19/10/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Aussies a family of worriers. Sydney Sunday Telegraph, 19/10/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Tech addicts. MX, p.1, 8/10/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: The war of the words The Age Good Weekend, p.22-27, 3/10/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Introvert internet addicts 'at social risk'. The Age, p. 2, 1/10/2003
2003 Radio interview: Stalking. 3AK, Brett de Hoet, 30/9/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Net tightens on Chat. The Australian, p. 9, 25/9/2003.
2003 Newspaper interview: Metrosexual men. MX, p.1, 9/9/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Mere men. The Age: A3, p. 6, 4/9/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Phonic Youth. The Age: Education Age, p. 6-7, 28/7/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: Equal custody access. Northern Star, Lismore Liz Bellamy.
2003 Radio interview: Tribes. ABC 1233 Newcastle, Paul Bevan, 4/7/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Facing an ugly reality. Herald Sun, H05, July 2.
2003 Newspaper interview: Culture shock. The Australian, ?/6/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Teen smoking. SPress magazine, ?/6/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Why people protest. The Age, /6
2003 Radio interview: Cashed up kids. 2CC, Mike Welsh, 4/6/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Living in the moment. Sunday Herald Sun, /6
2003 Magazine interview: Girlnextdoor.com. B Magazine, p. 68-70, June, 2003.
2003 Newspaper interview: Free for all. Herald Sun, C04, June 4.
2003 Newspaper interview: Cashed-up kids get a grip on the family finances. Sydney Morning Herald, 10, June 4
2003 Newspaper interview: Can’t stop clubbing. The Age: Sunday Life, p. 24-28, 25/5/2003
2003 Newspaper interview: EQ begins to edge out IQ as desirable quality in the boss. The Age, p.10, 18/5/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Obesity. SPress magazine, 13/5/03
2003 Newspaper interview: State of the Union. The Age, A2, p5, April, 18, 19, 2003.
2003 Magazine interview: Teenage runaway. Who Weekly 17/4/2003.
2003 Radio interview: April Fools Day. 3AK, John Jost, 1/4/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Driven to murder. Brisbane Courier Mail, p.31, 29/3/03
2003 Radio interview: Children’s internet access. Radio 774, Lyn Haultain, 6/3/03
2003 Magazine interview: Psychology of exaggeration. Readers Digest, p. ??, April. 2003.
2003 Radio interview: Religion and dance clubs. SBS FM, Alchemy, 20/2/02.
2003 Radio interview: Bushfire arson. Radio 3AK, Rob Elliot, 10/2/03
2003 Magazine interview: Secrets of A+ parents. Readers Digest, p. 52-57, Feb. 2003.
2003 Newspaper interview: Cam girls. Saturday Extra. p.1, 4. The Age, Feb 1, 2003.
2003 Radio interview: Bushfire arson. Radio 1233 ABC Newcastle, Garth Russell, 29/1/03
2003 Radio interview: School bullying. 3AK, John Jost, 29/1/03
2003 Radio interview: Bushfire arson. Radio 774, Libby Price, 24/1/03
2003 Radio interview: Bushfire arson. 3AW, Breakfast, 23/1/03
2003 Radio interview: Bushfire arson. 6PR, Adrian Borich, 23/1/03
2003 Newspaper interview: Australia hunts arsonists. Reuters, 23/1/03.
2003 Magazine interview: Bucket and spade brigade. Readers Digest, p.9, Jan. 2003.
2002 Radio interview: Christmas sads. The Cordeaux Show, 5DN Adelaide, 24/12/02
2002 Radio interview: Christmas sads. 3AK, Jason Cameron, 24/12/02
2002 Radio interview: Christmas sads. 774 ABC News, Ross Wilkinson, 24/12/02
2002 Radio interview: Christmas sads. 3AK, Annette Allison, 24/12/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Office Romances. MX, .
2002 Newspaper interview. Jingle tills, jingle tills! Spending Christmas at home. The Age, 10/12, p.8.
2002 Newspaper interview: Sick? (You must be on holidays). Sunday Courier Mail, 8/12 p.51
2002 Internet interview: What makes Kylie spin? The Lounge, 2/12/02 http://www.thelounge.com.au/welcome/default.cfm
2002 Newspaper interview: Pollies' big act. Sun Herald, Nov. 29, p.93.
2002 Radio interview: Santa Claus lies. SBS FM, 28/11/02. [On-Line]. Available :
2002 Radio interview: Christmas parties. 3AW, Ross Wilkinson, 28/11/02
2002 Radio interview: Reverse psychology. 3AW, Ross Wilkinson, 28/11/02
2002 Newspaper interview: We wish you a merry function. The Age, Nov 28, p.3.
2002 Newspaper interview: Big Dipper. Herald Sun, 26/11 p.33, 34
2002 Radio interview: Faking your own death. SBS FM, 14/11/02. [On-Line]. Available :
2002 Newspaper interview: Codependency. Brisbane Courier Mail, 2/11/02.
2002 Radio interview: Effects of recent tragedies. ABC Launceston, Tasmania, David Ayliffe, 22/10/02
2002 Radio interview: Wales murders. 3AW, Ross Wilkinson, 16/10/02
2002 Radio interview: Bush fires pyromania Radio 2UE Sydney, John Stanley 16/10/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Archbishop Pell and child abuse. Sydney Morning Herald,
2002 Newspaper interview: Bush fires pyromania. Sydney News Weekly,
2002 Radio interview: Rewarding road safety. Afternoon Radio. ABC Melbourne, Derek Guile, 3/10/02
2002 Radio interview: Bravery. Afternoon Radio. ABC Canberra, Andrea Close, 1/10/02
2002 Radio interview: Bravery. ABC Regional, NSW, Mike Corkill, 24/9/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Educating children about money. Good Medicine Magazine,
2002 Newspaper interview: Let's get quizzical. Canberra Times, Sunday 15/9/02 p. 4.
2002 Newspaper interview: Family involvement in children's education. Readers Digest, Dec. 2002.
2002 Radio interview: Chat rooms. ABC 774, Trevor Chappell, 22/8/02
2002 Radio interview: Aus Post desk policy. 3AW, Ross Wilkinson, 15/7/02
2002 Radio interview: School holidays. ABC 774, Trevor Chappell, 4/7/02
2002 Radio interview: IQ Show. 3AW, Ross Wilkinson, 26/6/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Engines that torque the torque. The Age, Drive, p.8, 20/6/02.
2002 Newspaper interview: A grim Read the hook for publishing notoriety. Canberra Times, p. 16 9/6/02.
2002 Radio interview: Footy parent rage. ABC 774, Derek Guile, 4/6/02
2002 Radio interview: Footy parent rage. ABC Regional, Libby Price, 4/6/02
2002 TV interview. : Mothers Day history and symbolism. Channel Seven News 12/5/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Mothers Day: The history. Sunday Herald Sun, p.11, 12/5/02.
2002 Radio interview: Mothers Day history and symbolism. 3AW, 12/5/02
2002 Radio interview: Mothers Day history and symbolism. 3AK, 12/5/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Mothers Day history and symbolism. Sunday Age. 12/5/02.
2002 Newspaper interview: Unseasonal weather puts city in a sunny mood. The Age, p.5, 9/5/02.
2002 Radio interview: Road rage. ABC Statewide NSW, Fiona Wiley, 5/5/02
2002 Radio interview: The Enneagram. Caroline Doogue, Radio National. 5/5/02
2002 Newspaper interview: How I became a Life Coach. Sunday Life, The Sunday Age Magazine, also Sun Herald, p.18, 4/5/2002.
2002 Newspaper interview: The woman feminists love to hate is dead; long live Ally McBeal. The Age Insight p.1 27/4/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Ally appeal. Sydney Morning Herald, p. 26, 27/4/2002.
2002 Newspaper interview: Exam stress. Good Medicine Magazine, July.
2002 Newspaper interview: Students misbehave on Wed. The Sunday Telegraph, 21/4/2002.
2002 Newspaper interview: Child like adults. Herald Sun, 4/2002.
2002 Radio interview: Twins. SBS FM, 9/4/02.
[On-Line]. www.sbs.com.au
Available: http://www.sbs.com.au/whatever2/front/front.html
2002 Newspaper interview: Inner strength. Herald Sun, p.27-28, 2/4/2002.
2002 Radio interview: Meals around the table. Alan Jones, 2GB. 1/4/02
2002 Radio interview: Driving behaviour. ABC North Coast, Lismore. 27/3/02
2002 Radio interview: Kissing. ABC Radio Far North Queensland. 8/3/02
2002 Radio interview. School violence. Phillip Clarke, 2GB, 5/3/02
2002 Newspaper interview: When tragedy makes friends. The Sunday Telegraph, p.27, 24/2/2002.
2002 Newspaper interview. Dining habits. Sunday Telegraph, 17/2/2002.
2002 Newspaper interview. Lying. Sunday Telegraph, 17/2/2002.
2002 Radio interview: IVF from the dead. George Moore, Radio 2UE, 17/2/02
2002 Newspaper interview. Dining habits. Sunday Telegraph, 17/2/2002.
2002 Radio interview: Kleptomania. David Anderson, ABC Radio Capricornia. 13/2/02
2002 Newspaper interview: Step-parenting. Family Circle.
2002 Newspaper interview. Vandalism a product of boredom. Whittlesea Leader, p.5, 6/2/02.
2002 Newspaper interview. When fiction merges with nasty reality. Daily Telegraph, p.17, 4/2/2002.
2002 Newspaper interview: Read all about it. Sydney Morning Herald, p.12, 19/1.
2002 Radio interview: Dogs lend an ear. Radio 3AW, Afternoons Denis Walter 8/1/2002.
2002 Newspaper interview: Bored children blamed in Australian devastation. The Daily Camera, 4/02/02
2002 TV interview: Bushfire arson. Channel 10 News, 3/1/02
2001 Radio interview: Christmas distress for males - Mensline. Radio 3AK, Afternoons Annette Allison, 27/12/2001.
2001 Radio interview: Christmas distress. ABC Radio, Breakfast, Colin Turos 24/12/2001.
2001 Newspaper interview: The gift of giving. Family Circle, pp.22-23, Dec Edition, 2001.
2001 Radio interview: Christmas dispirit. Colin Tyros, ABC Breakfast Radio, Victoria, 24/12/01.
2001 Radio interview: Christmas dispirit. Doug Aiton, Radio 3AK, Victoria, 11/12/01.
2001 Radio interview: OECD figures on low SES teenage illiteracy. Nicole Johnston, PM: ABC Radio National. 5/12/01
2001 Newspaper interview. New parliamentary Bill on spanking. Daily Telegraph, 6/12/01.
2001 Radio interview: Christmas shopping stress. Andrew Lofthouse, 612 ABC Brisbane, 5/12/01.
2001 Radio interview: Some psychological consequences of the Oz sporting failures. Emma Simpkin, PM: ABC Radio National. 3/12/01
2001 Newspaper interview: Literacy. Sunday Age, 2/12/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Hot-housing tennis players. Sunday Herald Sun, 27/11/01.
2001 Radio interview: The colour pink. SBS FM, 22/11/01. [On-Line]. Available: www.sbs.com.au/whatever
2001 Newspaper interview: City Graffiti Melbourne Leader, 21/11/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Jaws. Sunday Age, Sunday Life pp. 22-24, 18/11/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Playground games. Sunday Telegraph, 18/11/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Children and advertising. Daily Telegraph, 16/11/01.
2001 Radio interview: PTSD in New York. Radio 3AK Greg Evans 13/11/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Blackboard jungle: help for teachers under attack. The Age, News, p. 6, 4/11/01
2001 Radio interview: Children and TV viewing hours. Bill Gleason, ABC Radio, Tamworth 18/10/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Driving home roads safety. Daily Telegraph, p. 22. 27/9/01.
2001 Radio interview: Some psychological consequences of the US tragedy. David Anderson, Queensland Sunday program statewide on ABC Radio Capricornia. 23/9/01
2001 Newspaper article: Some psychological consequences of the US tragedy. Canberra Times, 18/9/01
2001 Newspaper interview: Gift giving: Traps for the unwary. Daily Telegraph, 17/9/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Christmas gifts: Teaching children how to give. Family Circle, Christmas issue
2001 Newspaper interview: Christmas cards: Character analysis. Readers Digest, Nov. 2001.
2001 Radio interview: Local persecution of Muslims. Radio 3AK Brett de Hoet 15/9/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: New York Disaster. Canberra Times, 14/9/01
2001 Newspaper interview: Bubble wrapping baby. The Age, Today, p. T1, T3, 17/9/01
2001 Newspaper interview: Single: A generation discovers the power of one. Sunday Telegraph p.11, 2/9/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: People see being single as their normal way of life. The Advertiser, 2/9/01
2001 Radio interview: Kids take up arms. Radio Fox-FM News 29/8/01
2001 Radio interview: Kids take up arms. Radio MMM-FM News 29/8/01
2001 Radio interview: Kids take up arms. Radio 3AK Breakfast program 29/8/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Use of knives by kids. RMIT Media Release 28/8/01. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.rmit.edu.au/browse;ID=p3eu72ffvjv2
2001 Radio interview: Eminem. Radio 3AW, Steve Price, 19/7/01.
2001 Newspaper interview: Everyone's Big Brother. Who Weekly, 30/7/01, p. 49-53.
2001 Newspaper interview: Phone-happy little sisters power Big Brother The Weekend Australian, p.3, 14/7.
2001 Radio interview: Superstition Friday 13th Elaine Harris, ABC Northern Tasmania, 13/7.
2001 Newspaper interview: Celebs hide fears behind mega-toys. The Herald Sun, 7/7/01, p. 17.
2001 Newspaper interview: Perspective: Conduct Unbecoming. The Age, 5/7/01, p. 13.
2001 Magazine interview: Social Crutches? Pure Health Magazine, Ylla Wright, June 23.
2001 Newspaper interview: Webcams Why? The Australian, Sarah Bryden-Brown, June 23.
2001 TV interview: Guns and schools. ABC TV News, June 21.
2001 Radio interview: The community effects of the execution of Tim McVeigh. Glen Bartholomew, ABC Drivetime, Victoria, 12/6.
2001 Radio interview: The community effects of the execution of Tim McVeigh. 3AW, Collette Mann. 11/6.
2001 Radio interview: The community effects of the execution of Tim McVeigh. 6TR Perth, Paul Murray 11/6.
2001 Radio interview: The community effects of the execution of Tim McVeigh. SBS FM, 11/6.
2001 Radio interview: The community effects of the execution of Tim McVeigh. Magic 693 FM, 11/6.
2001 Radio interview: Big Brother. Radio 3AW, Collette Mann, May 14.
2001 Radio interview: Computers in education. Radio National ABC, Seamus Haugh , May 11.
2001 Newspaper interview: Fears as American culture gets a grip. The Sunday Age News, p.5, March 11.
2001 Radio interview: Conversation hour: Kerry Hempenstall on Literacy in the School System. Bob Rau, Radio North Western FM 98.9, Victoria, March 11.
2001 Radio interview: Assault at nightclub. Virginia Trioli, Radio National, Victoria, February 12.
2001 Radio interview: Road rage. Ron Bourke, Radio Stereo 974, Victoria, February 9.
2001 Radio interview: Road rage. Radio National ABC News, February 7
2001 Radio interview: Road rage. Doug Aiton, Radio 3AK, Victoria, February 7.
2000 Radio interview: Psychology of Christmas. Denis O'Kane, Radio Gold TTFM, Victoria, Dec 25
2000 Radio interview: Psychology of Christmas. Kerin Marlowe, Radio 3AK, Victoria, Dec 18
2000 Radio interview: Psychology of Christmas. Bruce Mansfield, Radio 3AK, Victoria, Dec 16.
2000 Newspaper interview: Keeping a closer watch Herald Sun, Dec 6, p.19.
2000 Newspaper interview: Setting the standard Herald Sun, Nov 28, p.19.
2000 Radio interview: Weetbix violent advert. Leon Byner Radio 5AA, South Australia. Nov 28.
2000 Radio interview: Protest violence. Ernie Sigley, Radio 3AW, Victoria, Sept 11.
2000 Newspaper interview: Straight up, with a twist. Sunday Life, The Sunday Age Magazine, p.10.
2000 Radio interview: Kids shows too violent. Doug Aiton, Radio 3AK, Victoria, May 25.
2000 Newspaper interview: Kids shows too violent Herald Sun, May 25, p.11
2000 Newspaper interview: Family links key to skills The Border Mail, May 16, p.23
2000 Newspaper interview: Pokie toddler fights on. Herald Sun, Feb 20, pp.7.
1999 Newspaper interview: The Pokemon Invasion The Age Green Guide, p.11, 23/12/99
1999 Newspaper interview: Giving grim tale a happy ending The Australian, Oct 4, p.19.
1999 Newspaper interview: Alarm over cyber tots Herald Sun, July 14, pp.1, 4.
1999 Radio interview: Marketing strategies for Xmas toys. “Drivetime” ABC Regional Radio. 25/11/1999.
1999 TV interview: Alarm over cybertots. “Today” program. Ch9 23/7/99.
1999 Radio interview: Mother bites own child. Radio 5AA, South Australia. 7/5/1999.
Australian Psychological Society: Video Library
Radio interview: Corporal punishment in families ABC radio 2CN, 4/12/1997
Radio interview: Learning Disabilities: Recognition and Strategies for Parents. ABC:FM Regional, Sale, 25/6/1996
Radio interview: The "dyslexia" dilemma, 3MP, for SPELD, Nov. 1995
Hempenstall, K. (1994). I'd like to help but how? Home-school liaison in managing disruptive behaviour. Paper presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society, Wollongong, NSW. Available from APS, Melbourne.

Symposia Organised

Hempenstall, K. (1998). Empirically validated procedures for teaching reading. Symposium presented at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society, Melbourne, Victoria.

Conference Presentations

Hempenstall, K. (2010). Supporting schools to strengthen curriculum provision and teaching responses for students with significant learning difficulties Office for Government School Education: Student Wellbeing and Student Learning Divisions, Friday 28 May 2010.
Hempenstall, K. (2009). Confluence: Commonalities across literacy reports from USA, Great Britain, and Australia. Keynote presentation at the Effective Teaching Conference, Melbourne University Private, Hawthorn. Nov 13, 2009.
Hempenstall, K. (2009). Confluence: Commonalities across literacy reports from USA, Great Britain, and Australia. Presentation at the LDA Seminar “Effective Reading Instruction for All: National and International Perspectives” 23/9/2009.
Hempenstall, K. (2009). What is ‘Response to Intervention’ (RTI)? Presentation at the LDA Seminar “Effective Reading Instruction for All: National and International Perspectives” 23/9/2009.
Hempenstall, K. (2009). Aiding parents to teach reading at home: The RMIT Clinic approach. Joint Conference (LDA/RSTAQ/SPELD) “Consult and Collaborate: A holistic approach to learning needs”. Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre, 18 – 19 September 2009
Hempenstall, K. (2008). Implications for practice of current research on reading and spelling. Keynote presentation at the Effective Teaching Conference, Melbourne University Private, Hawthorn. Nov 14, 2008
Hempenstall, K. (2007). Topical issues in instruction. Keynote presentation at the Effective Teaching Conference, Melbourne University Private, Hawthorn. Nov 30, 2007.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). Evidence-based practice in education. Conference for special education staff of the Parramatta Diocese, Catholic Education Office, Sydney 20/2/2007.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Literacy research: The Australian and international context. In symposium: “Changing times - the recent Literacy revolution in Australia: Policy changes, political implications, and the new literacy agenda for schools”. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference Engaging Pedagogies, Adelaide 27th - 30th November, 2006.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Evidence-based. Keynote presentation at the Effective Teaching Conference, Melbourne University Private, Hawthorn, 17/11/2006.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Literacy research: The Australian and international context. In symposium: Changing times - the recent Literacy revolution in Australia: Policy changes, political implications, and the new literacy agenda for schools. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference Engaging Pedagogies, Adelaide 27th - 30th November, 2006. Audio of Symposium (mp3, 3.45MB).
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: International trends in enhancing literacy attainment. Workshop presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Engaging Pedagogies, Adelaide 27th - 30th November, 2006.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). What does evidence-based practice in education mean? Annual Hippocrates and Socrates XI conference, Students with additional learning needs: Theory, practice and interventions - what works?, Westmead Hospital, Westmead. NSW. Thursday, 7-8 September.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). What does evidence-based practice in education mean? National Conference Learning Difficulties Australia, Wesley College, 20/8/2006
Hempenstall, K. (2005). Implications of reading research for practice. Keynote presentation at the Effective Teaching Conference, Melbourne University Private, Hawthorn, 18/11/2005
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Implications of reading research for practice. Effective Teaching Conference, Melbourne University Private, Hawthorn, 18/11/2005
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Research on Direct Instruction. 30th National Direct Instruction Conference, July 18 - 22, Eugene, Oregon.
Hempenstall, K. (2003). When the desire to read is not enough: International perspectives on addressing reading difficulties. Keynote presentation at the Australian Centre for Youth Literacy Conference: Reading = Literacy. State Library of Victoria, 31.7/03.
Hempenstall, K. (2003). Effective Literacy Instruction Across Curriculum K-12 Conference. Keynote and workshop presentations, Barker College, July 21.
Hempenstall, K. (2003). Tools for assessing the critical elements of reading identified by the National Reading Panel. Feature presentation at the Successful Learning Conference, University of Sydney, June 30 – July 1.
Schmittinger, T & Hempenstall, K. (2001). Training a parent to implement a direct instruction reading program to a child: A case study. Paper presented at the State Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy, Nov 23, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne
Hempenstall, K. (2001). The gulf between empirically based indicators of reading progress and Education Department Curriculum Frameworks guidelines for teachers. Paper presented at the State Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy, Nov 23, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne
Hempenstall, K. (2000). The findings of the National Reading Panel, and their implications for school psychologists. Paper presented at the State Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy, December 1, Deakin University, Toorak.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Major directional shifts in literacy teaching: USA and Great Britain. Keynote address presented at the Effective Literacy and Numeracy Conference. Monash University, Oct 27.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: Recent research and proven programs. Invited paper presented at the Future Learning Partnerships State Conference of the Catholic Education Office, October 4, University of Melbourne.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Reading difficulties: Identification and management. DEET Northern Metropolitan Region 6/7/00
Hempenstall, K. (1999). The assessment and treatment of learning difficulties: Problems and recent approaches. Paper presented at the Annual State Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behavior Therapy, Latrobe U., Dec 3.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Teaching ESL to students with learning difficulties. Panel presentation at the ESL Conference: Bridge to learning. Department of Education, Employment and Training. Hotel Sofitel, Melbourne, 15th November.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Teaching reading to an adult with a moderate intellectual disability using a Direct Instruction program. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behavior Therapy, Fremantle, WA July 5th.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Beginning reading instruction: The roles of phonics and phonemic awareness. Keynote address presented at the Successful Learning Conference, University of Western Sydney, 23/7/1999.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: Effective programs and practices. Keynote address presented at the Currajong School Conference, May 22.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Literacy and older children? What focus for instruction? Feature address presented at the Australian Association of Special Education National Conference. Sept. 25-28 at the Australian Technology Park, Sydney.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). The early identification of reading disability: The role of phonological processes. Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society, Melbourne, Victoria.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Empirically validated practice meets education: A breakthrough. Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society, Melbourne, Victoria.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Empirically validated practice meets education: A breakthrough. Keynote address presented at the Successful Learning Conference, University of Western Sydney, 23/7/1998
Hempenstall, K. (1998). The effects of Direct Instruction reading programs on the phonological processes of students. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behavior Therapy, Adelaide.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). Empirically validated practice meets education: A breakthrough. Paper presented at the Annual State Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy, Latrobe U.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). The Matthew Effects in reading: Why initial delays in reading become increasingly pervasive. Paper presented at the Annual State Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy, Monash U.
Hempenstall, K. (1995). The early identification of reading disability: The role of phonological processes. Paper presented at the Annual State Conference of the Australian Behaviour Modification Association, Melbourne.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). I'd like to help but how? Home-school liaison in managing disruptive behaviour. Paper presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society, Wollongong, NSW.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). Dyslexics: Word-blind or sounds-deaf. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Behaviour Modification Association, Fremantle, WA.

Workshops

Hempenstall, K. (2010). Psychology Clinic: Assessment and intervention in learning disabilities. Invited one day workshop for RMIT Psychology Clinic staff, Melbourne, Feb 25, 2010.
Hempenstall, K. (2009). Assessment and intervention in learning disabilities: Recent evidence-based approaches. Invited two day workshop for SPELD, Victoria. Melbourne, July 10-11, 2009.
Hempenstall, K. (2009). Assessment and intervention in learning disabilities: Recent evidence-based approaches. Invited two day workshop for SPELD, Victoria. Bendigo, April 29-30, 2009
Hempenstall, K. (2007). Preventing & overcoming reading failure. One day workshop presented for the Dyslexia Assessment and Education Centre. Melbourne University: Hawthorn Campus, 22/6/2007
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: International trends in enhancing literacy attainment. Workshop presented at Australian Association for Research in Education Conference Engaging Pedagogies, Adelaide 27th - 30th November, 2006.
Hempenstall, K. (2005). Preventing & overcoming reading failure. One day workshop presented for the Dyslexia Assessment and Education Centre. The Parkside Inn, Bundoora, Sep 2, 2005
Hempenstall, K. (2005). Preventing & overcoming reading failure. One day workshop presented for the Dyslexia Assessment and Education Centre. The Nerve Centre, Blackburn, June 3, 2005
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Evidence-based literacy instruction in secondary schools: A worthwhile curriculum emphasis. One day workshop presented at Australian Centre for Youth Literacy, State Library of Victoria, 20/5/2004
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Preventing & overcoming reading failure. One day workshop presented for the Dyslexia Assessment and Education Centre at Melbourne University: Hawthorn Campus, May 6, 2004.
Hempenstall, K. (2003). Issues in improving student performance in the upper secondary years. Workshop presented at Eumemmerring College, Hallam, 10/11/2003.
Hempenstall, K. (2003). Directly tutoring beginning readers and older non-readers: International trends in enhancing literacy attainment. Workshop presented at Seymour for Berry Street, 30th August 2003
Hempenstall, K. (2003). Effective literacy instruction across curriculum. Learning Difficulties Australia Conference. Barker College, Sydney, July 21. 2003.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). Corrective Reading Teachers Group. Invited presentation at Eltham North Primary School. 20/11/02.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). Recent issues in reading intervention. Keynote address presented at the ACER Professional Development Workshop, Monash University, June 14.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). Recent issues in reading intervention. Keynote address presented at the McGraw Hill Professional Development Workshop, Mt Ommaney Plaza, Brisbane, QLD, March 11.
Hempenstall, K. (2002). Establishing reading interventions. Workshop presented at the ACER Professional Development Workshop, Mt Ommaney Plaza, Brisbane, QLD, March 11.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: Proven programs and practices. Invited one day workshop for SPELD, Victoria , University of Melbourne, Hawthorn Campus, 4/8/2001.
Hempenstall, K. (2001).Recent issues in reading intervention. Keynote address presented at the ACER Professional Development Workshop, Monash University, June 7.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Training parents to provide empirically supported reading instruction to their children: Techniques employed in the RMIT Psychology Clinic. One-half day workshop presented at the Helping Families Change Conference: From Theory into Practice. Hilton on the Park, Sat 24/2/2001
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Issues in implementing the Corrective Reading program: Comprehension strand. Keynote address presented at the Effective Literacy and Numeracy Workshop. Monash University, Oct 27.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Working with tertiary students with learning disabilities. One-day workshop presented at the Riverina College of TAFE, Albury, NSW. 12/5/2000.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Major issues in learning disabilities. One-day workshop presented at the Riverina College of TAFE, Albury, NSW. 11/5/2000.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Phonemic awareness and phonics: Relevance to older students. Invited workshop for the Conference of Speech Pathologists, Melbourne, June 2000.
Hempenstall, K. (2000). Empirically validated practice and reading: Programs that work. Invited half-day workshop for the National Conference of the AACBT, Melbourne, April 2000.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Literacy and older students: what focus for instruction? Invited workshop for TRAF (Teachers Reacting Against Failure) presented at the Richmond TAFE Conference Centre, Sydney. Nov. 23.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Beginning reading instruction: The role of phonics and phonemic awareness. Invited workshop presented for TRAF (Teachers Reacting Against Failure) at the School for Deaf and Blind, Sydney. Nov. 24.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Preventing the Matthew Effect: The how and why of early intervention. Invited half-day workshop for the Catholic Education Office conference “Future Learning Partnerships”, Melbourne, October 11-13.
Hempenstall, K. (1999).Working with children and adolescents: Developmental issues. Invited half-day workshop presented to Salvation Army welfare staff, Crossroads Centre, Melbourne, Sep 8th.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Corrective Reading program: Comprehension strand. Invited half-day workshop presented Effective Literacy Conference, Melbourne, Sep 4th.
Hempenstall, K. (1998).Explosive showdowns in the classroom: Towards prediction and management. One-day workshop (by invitation of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behaviour Therapy) presented in Fremantle, WA. Aug. 29.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Explosive showdowns in the classroom: Towards prediction and management. One-day workshop (by invitation of the Port Germein PS) presented in Port Pirie, SA. 7/8/1998
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: Effective group programs emphasising phonemic awareness and phonics.(900k word file) Half-day workshop (by invitation of the St John's Greek Orthodox School), Preston, Melbourne. 26/6/1998.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: Programs and practices. One-day workshop by invitation of the Catholic Education Office, Warrnambool, Victoria. 25/6/1998
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Preventing and overcoming reading failure: Effective group programs emphasising phonemic awareness and phonics. Half-day workshop (by invitation of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy) presented at RMIT, Melbourne. 19/6/1998.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). Classroom management for visitors. Invited workshop for staff at Sutherland Community Resource Group. Watsonia, Feb 18
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Teaching reading to hearing impaired children: Recent research and programs emphasising phonemic awareness. Invited workshop for staff at Monnington Centre for Early Intervention. Kew, August.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). The window of opportunity in reading disability intervention: Early identification and treatment. One-day workshop presented at the 1996 Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy, July, Manly, NSW.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Explosive showdowns in the classroom: Towards prediction and management. One-day workshop (by invitation of the Australian Association for Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy) presented in Adelaide, SA. June.
Hempenstall, K. (1995). Preventing reading failure: Recent research and programs emphasising phonemic awareness. One-day workshop presented at the 1995 Annual Conference of the Australian Behaviour Modification Association, Melbourne, Vic.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). Educationally at-risk children: What are we doing wrong, and what should we be doing? One-day workshop presented at the 1994 Annual Conference of the Australian Behaviour Modification Association, Fremantle, WA.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). Educationally at-risk children: What are we doing wrong, and what should we be doing? One-day workshop (by invitation of the Australian Behaviour Modification Association) presented in Perth, WA., December.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). Explosive showdowns in the classroom: Towards prediction and control. One-day workshop (by invitation of the Australian Behaviour Modification Association) presented in Perth, WA. December.

Invited Lectures

Hempenstall, K. (2008). I teach but they don't learn: When reading instruction fails. Colloquium at School of Behavioural Science, University of Melbourne 5/8/2008.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). Corrective Reading assistance for struggling secondary students.Address to administrators of the Diamond Valley College, 21/8/2007.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). What is Direct Instruction?Address to administrators of the Ruyton School, Kew, 18/6/2007.
Hempenstall, K. (2007). What does evidence-based practice in education mean?Address to administrators of the Parramatta Diocese, Catholic Education Office, Sydney 19/2/2007.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Assessing fluency. Beverley Hills Primary School 14/8/2004.
Hempenstall, K. (2006). Preventing and overcoming reading problems. Beverley Hills Primary School 7/8/2004.
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Reading and the brain. Laney High School, North Carolina, USA, 14/9/2004.
Hempenstall, K. (2004). Psychology training in Australia. University of North Carolina at Wilmington, 14/9/2004.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Issues in literacy for secondary s. Invited lecture presented to Thornbury-Darebin College. 25/10/01.
Hempenstall, K. (2001). Corrective Reading Teachers Group. Invited presentation at Heathmont Secondary College. 5/12/01.
Hempenstall, K. (1999). Insights into reading failure. Invited lecture presented to the Woodlands District Integration Teachers' and Aides' Network, Gladstone Park Secondary College 8/6/1999.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Becoming a successful reader: Every child's right. Invited lecture presented at The EPIC Centre, Bundoora, Melbourne, 1998.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Becoming a successful reader: Every child's right. Invited lecture presented at Ivanhoe Grammar School, Mernda, Melbourne, 17/6/1998.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Becoming a successful reader: Every child's right. Invited lecture presented at Bacchus Marsh Primary School, May 16.
Hempenstall, K. (1998). Applications of reading research to classrooms. Invited lecture presented for the Catholic Education Office, West Melbourne, May 20.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). Reading and its development: An emerging consensus. Invited lecture at Orana Family Services, Oct 22.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). Reading and its development: An emerging consensus. Invited lecture at Brunswick Secondary College, Oct 20.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). Explosive showdowns in the classroom: Towards prediction and management. Invited lecture at Western General Hospital, Sep 3.
Hempenstall, K. (1997). Reading and its development: An emerging consensus. Invited lecture at Royal Childrens Hospital. Aug 26
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Understanding the nature of your child's learning disability: Invited lecture presented for SPELD, June, Glamorgan, Toorak.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Understanding the nature of your child's learning disability: Invited lecture presented for SPELD, August, Kingswood College.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Learning disabilities: Skill building and scaffolding for learning disabled students. Invited lecture presented for Dept of Adolescent Psychiatry, Western General Hospital, Aug.29
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Learning disabilities: Recognition and strategies for parents. Invited lecture presented at Maffra for Ministry of Education Office, Sale District, July 20
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Learning disabilities: Recognition and strategies for parents. Invited lecture presented for SPELD, June.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Learning disabilities: Skill building and scaffolding for learning disabled students. Invited lecture presented at Marcellin College, for the Catholic Education Office, May.
Hempenstall, K. (1996). Learning disabilities: Recognition and intervention Invited lecture presented at Veneto Club, for the Catholic Education Office, March.
Hempenstall, K. (1995). The "dyslexia" dilemma. Invited public lecture presented at Melb. University for SPELD. November.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). Classroom management and integration. Invited series of three lectures presented at Latrobe University, Melb.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). Classroom behaviour management. Invited lecture presented at Monash University, Melbourne.
Hempenstall, K. (1994). Home-school liaison. Invited lecture presented at Monash University, Melb.

Useful Links

Direct Instruction

A host of fine articles at the National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators: NCITE's purpose is to advance the quality and effectiveness of technology, media, and materials for individuals with disabilities. http://idea.uoregon.edu/~ncite/

The Association for Direct Instructionhttp://darkwing.uoregon.ed

The discussion list for Effective School Practices involves world wide e-mail conversations between individuals committed to effective teaching of children. It is often passionate, but also a source of inspiration and knowledge. email to: MAJORDOMO@LISTS.UOREGON.EDU.
The message: SUBSCRIBE DI

J/P Associates can provide various add-ons to the Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading programs, such as homework books. http://www.jponline.com/

The research base supporting the use of Reading Mastery has been compiled by Bonnie Grossen, Ph.D. http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adiep/rdgtxt.htm

Information about Teach Your Child to Read in 100 Easy Lessons on one author’s page http://www.startreading.com/


An Educators' Guide to School-wide Reform, a 141-page report from American Institutes for Research, found that only the programs Direct Instruction, High Schools That Work, and Success for All had adequate evidence for effectiveness in reading instruction. Commissioned by five education groups-including the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers

The development of criteria for what constitutes acceptable research evidence has made easier the task of convincing the educational community of the value of research findings in informing practice. Having established these criteria, it becomes easier to determine which of the plethora of reading programs available does have adequate research support at any given time. The examination of existing evidence employing stringent criteria by a range of groups has supported Direct Instruction as a valuable approach to reading instruction for both regular and struggling readers. For example, the American Federation of Teachers series of documents Building From The Best, Learning From What Works names Direct Instruction programs among Seven Promising Reading and English Language Arts Programs, Three Promising High School Remedial Reading Programs, and Five Promising Remedial Reading Intervention Programs. Direct Instruction programs are the only ones recommended in each of these reports. See at http://www.aft.org/teachers/pubs-reports/index.htm

Doug Carnine compares the current state of the education field with medicine and other professions in the early part of the 20th century, and suggests that education will undergo its transformation to a full profession only when outside pressures force it to. Expert judgments should be built on objective data that can be inspected by a broad audience rather than on wishful thinking. Only when the profession embraces scientific methods for determining efficacy and accepts accountability for results will education acquire the status—and the rewards—of a mature profession.

Carnine, D. (2000). Why education experts resist effective practices (And what it would take to make education more like medicine. The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation [On-Line]. Available at: http://www.edexcellence.net/foundation/publication/publication.cfm?id=46

The Council for Exceptional Children provides informed judgements regarding professional practices in the field. The Direct Instruction model was judged by the Editorial Committee to be well validated and reliably used. Read about it at: http://www.teachingld.org/ld_resources/alerts/2.htm

Another report, Reading Programs that Work: A Review of Programs for Pre-Kindergarten to 4th Grade (Schacter, 1999), similarly includesDirect Instruction among six school-wide effective reading models. See at: http://www.mff.org/pubs/ME279.pdf

In a major longitudinal study (Project Follow Through - $1 billion over nearly three decades) of more than 15,000 students, Direct Instruction showed the greatest positive impact on all three types of development assessed – basic skills, problem solving, and self esteem.
Association of American Educators (2001). Project Follow Through. Available: http://www.aaeteachers.org/follow.shtml
These reports have been influential in drawing attention to the large corpus of supportive research developed over the years indicative of the effectiveness of the Direct Instruction model across a wide range of educational settings. The model is now being implemented with varying degrees of fidelity in increasing numbers of school settings. In the USA, this interest has been furthered by the impact of the Reading Excellence Act (1998) and the Elimination of Reading Deficit Act (2000) with their emphasis on empirically supported programs (and DI is recognised as such) as a requirement for federal funding. As a consequence, there has been a very rapid rise in interest within the educational community. As an indication, the number of educational web pages that now make reference to Direct Instruction has increased dramatically in the past 18 months as the use of any search engine will attest.

Corrective Reading: Decoding and Corrective Reading: Comprehensionare among the programs in the Annotated List of Language Arts Programs adopted by the California State Board of Education in 1999, after it abandoned the Whole Language model it had previously mandated from 1987.
California Department of Education. (no date). Reading/language arts framework for California public schools: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve. [On-Line}. Available: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/rl/cf/
Could it be that Direct Instruction (shudder) is inconsistent with developmentally appropriate practice?

Kozloff, M.A. & Bessellieu, F.B. (2000). Direct instruction is developmentally appropriate. [On-Line]. Available at: www.uncwil.edu/people/kozloffm/didevelapp.html
Everyone knows reading is the foundation of learning. You know it. Teachers know it. So why don't they teach it using proven methods? What is arguably the most extensively tested method for teaching reading is called Direct Instruction (DI). It isn't the only effective method but it's one that has been shown to work with both advantaged and disadvantaged students alike.

Schug, M.C., Tarver, S.G., &. Western, R.D. (2001, May). Direct Instruction and the teaching of early reading, Wisconsin's teacher-led insurgency. The Education Consumers Consultants Network, (1)5. [On-Line]. Available at: http://www.education-consumers.com/briefs/May2001.shtm
DISTAR, the precursor to Reading Mastery, reported positive results for students. DISTAR was the only instructional program studied in Project Follow Through to have "consistently positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students"

Briggs, K.L. & Clark, C. (1997). Reading programs for students in the lower elementary grades: What does the research say? Texas Centre for Educational Research. Available at: http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED420046

Major Reports

Rose Report 2006: Independent review of the teaching of early reading http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/rosereview/

Report of Nelson Enquiry Australia 2005: National Enquiry into the Teaching of Literacy http://www.dest.gov.au/nitl/report.htm

The National Reading Panel (April 13, 2000) reports that a combination of teaching phonics, word sounds, giving feedback on oral reading provides the most effective way to teach reading
In the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn to read the National Reading Panel (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000) recently presented its findings. For its review, the Panel selected methodologically sound research from the approximately 100,000 reading studies that have been published since 1966, and from another 15,000 earlier studies. It determined (Hall, 2000) that “effective reading instruction includes teaching children to break apart and manipulate the sounds in words (phonemic awareness), teaching them that these sounds are represented by letters of the alphabet which can then be blended together to form words (phonics), having them practise what they've learned by reading aloud with guidance and feedback (guided oral reading), and applying reading comprehension strategies to guide and improve reading comprehension.” See at: http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org

Findings of the National Research Council Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children. The NRC is the research arm of the Washington-based National Academy of Sciences, and took on the task at the behest of the U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services. Authors Snow, Burns, & Griffin http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/enter2.cgi?030906418X.html

A Synthesis of Research on Reading from the huge studies under the auspices of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) by Bonita Grossen, University of Oregon, 1997 http://www.nrrf.org/synthesis_research.htm

An Educators’ Guide to Schoolwide Reform. This guide provides a review of the research on 24 schoolwide reform models. For each approach reviewed, the guide provides ratings accompanied by profiles and research references. This work was conducted by the American Institutes for Research and was contracted by the American Association of School Administrators, American Federation of Teachers, National Association of Elementary School Principals, National Association of Secondary School Principals, and National Education Association, Available at http://www.aasa.org/issues_and_insights/district_organization/Reform/

Every Child Reading: An Action Plan and Every Child Mathematically Proficient: an Action Plan. The Learning First Alliance has developed guides for supporting literacy and math proficiency, with tips for parents, teachers and schools. Available at http://www.learningfirst.org/publications/reading/

Teaching Reading IS Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able To Do. This report from the American Federation of Teachers describes the essential knowledge teachers should have in order to be successful at teaching all children to master reading. Recommendations for improving the teaching of reading are made regarding teacher education and professional development. Available at http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/downloads/teachers/rocketsci.pdf

Tools for Schools: School Reform Models Supported by the National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students. The National Institute is a part of the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Research and Improvement. This guide describes 27 school reform models, providing information about comprehensive school reform models, classroom and curriculum redesign models, and professional development reform models. Available at www.ed.gov/pubs/ToolsforSchools/index.html

Every child reading: An action plan of the Learning First Alliance (1998).
Schools should base educational decisions on evidence, not ideology. Initial instruction should include explicit, systematic instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics. Reading materials should feature a high proportion of new words that children can "sound out" using the letter-sound relationships they have been taught. The Learning First Alliance comprises 11 teacher organizations. [On-Line]. Available at http://www.readbygrade3.com/readbygrade3co/lfa.htm

National Research Council Jan 2002 WASHINGTON -- To ensure that minority students who are poorly prepared for school are not assigned to special education for that reason, educators should be required to first provide them with high-quality instruction and social support in a general education classroom before making a determination that special education is needed, says a new report from the National Academies' National Research Council. Educators also should adopt comprehensive screening strategies, particularly in reading, to identify students at risk of school failure as early as possible, and intervene before academic or behavior problems become deeply entrenched. Moreover, states should raise training and professional-development requirements for all prospective and current teachers to help them better meet the needs of atypical learners.

Donovan, M.S. & Cross, C.T. (Eds.) (2002). Minority students in special and gifted education. National Research Council.Available at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10128.html?onpi_newsdoc01162002
The purpose of the Rand Reading Study Group is to summarize the state of research and research-based practice in the field of reading comprehension, in order to generate a well-motivated agenda for future research that will inform practice in this area. This specific document is a first attempt at describing such a research agenda, formulated so as to elicit commentary from the broadest possible constituency of reading researchers.
Rand Reading Study Group. (2001). Reading for understanding. Towards an R & D program in reading comprehension. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.rand.org/multi/achievementforall/reading/
The educators of the Texas State Reading Association, Texas Association of School Librarians, Coalition of English and Reading Supervisors of Texas, and Kindergarten Teachers of Texas were able to reach consensus on a set of basic principles for a balanced and comprehensive approach to reading instruction. These principles were published and distributed state-wide in a brief, easy to understand flyer entitled

Commissioner’s Group on Reading. (1998). Good practice: Implications for reading instruction -A consensus document of Texas Literacy professional organizations. http://www.laporte.isd.esc4.net/resources/languagearts/teks_toolkit/resources/reading.html

The California Department of Education’s Reading/Language Arts Framework describes the content and skill requirements in reading, writing, listening, and speaking that all students need to master at each grade level. It also provides the road map for students to attain proficiency in the content standards.
California Department of Education. (1999). Reading/language arts framework for California public schools: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve. [On-Line}. Available: http://www.cde.ca.gov/cdepress/lang_arts.pdf

What about Early Intervention?

White House Early Childhood Cognitive Development Summit (2001)
We have learned that the quality of our children's early development has a significant effect on their entire lives. … The discussions during the Summit have made clear that our children require informed and systematic interactions and experiences with adults who will take the time and effort to teach vocabulary and other oral language concepts, phonological concepts, letter knowledge and other print and emergent literacy concepts.
Lyon, G.R, (2001, July 30). Summary comments White House Early Childhood Cognitive Development Summit. Education News Org.

The National Research Council’s (2001) report “Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers” envisages having all preschool classes led by college-educated teachers with specialized training. It calls for a well-organized preschool system that would give all children—especially those deemed at high risk for school failure—the tools they need to succeed academically. While activities such as art, music, and crafts should continue to play an important role in preschool classrooms, the report says, the curriculum should focus primarily on reading, mathematics, and science.
National Research Council. (2001). Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [On-Line]. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309068363/html/1.html

"From Neurons to Neighborhoods" is a comprehensive report on early childhood development released in 2001 by the National Research Council, the research arm of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. It was written by a panel that spent 2 1/2 years reviewing hundreds of studies from many disciplines. One extract: “The relevance of the latest brain research for education policy is basically not ready for prime time. On the other hand, a lot of what some of the more exciting brain research being done today is reinforcing behavioral and developmental research. . . . In fact, behavioral research is brain research. We know about brain function by looking at behavior. All this behavior and development we've been studying for decades is not coming from the pancreas”.
Shonkoff, J.P. & Phillips, D.A. (Eds). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. [On-Line]. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9824.html

Important Legislation

The UK National Literacy Strategy (1998) mandates that all primary schools are to adopt structured teaching of phonics, and to abandon the present whole language system. Great Britain's National Literacy Strategy is at the heart of the drive to raise literacy standards in British schools. This site supports teachers and others working for improvement in UK schools. It provides direct access to professional development materials as well as information about initiatives and events to support improvements in literacy. Based on the rigorous teaching of phonics - which starts with the sounds children know and shows how these are represented by letters - the new approach attempts to transform the way reading is taught and (it is hoped) marks the end of a 30-year classroom war.
“When they begin to read, most pupils tend to see words as images, with a particular shape and pattern. They tend not to understand that words are made up of letters used in particular combinations that correspond with spoken sounds. It is essential that pupils are taught these basic decoding and spelling skills from the outset.”

2006 Changes in GB


Independent Review of Early Reading Jim Rose (RRF conference 3.11.06)
How do we best educate our children for literacy?

FIVE ASPECTS OF THE REVIEW
  • Expectations for best practice in early reading & synthetic phonics
  • Relationship to revised NLS Framework for Teaching and new EYFS.
  • Best provision to help children with significant literacy difficulties catch up.
  • Impact of leadership &management and practitioners’ subject knowledge & skills
  • VFM/cost effectiveness of different approaches,
SYSTEMATIC PHONIC WORK
‘These findings show that systematic phonics instruction produced superior performance in reading compared to all types of unsystematic or no phonics instruction. Phonics instruction is systematic when all the major grapheme-phoneme correspondences are taught in a clearly defined sequence’

FEATURES OF HIGH QUALITY PHONIC WORK
  • Grapheme/phoneme correspondences taught in a clearly defined incremental sequence.
  • Blends phonemes all through the word in the order they appear in real words.
  • Segments words into their constituent phonemes to spell.
  • Short, discrete, daily sessions taught within a broad and rich curriculum.
  • Multi-sensory, engaging, enjoyable.
  • Time-limited – balance changes from ‘learning to read’ to ‘reading to learn’
DIFFERENT PROGRAMMES – SIMILAR PRINCIPLES
‘The common elements in each [systematic] programme – those that really make a difference to how well beginner readers are taught and learn to read and write – are few in number’ Reading Review final report

SIMPLE VIEW OF READING: KEY POINTS
  • Two distinct processes in learning to read: word recognition, and language comprehension.
  • Practitioners should assess and support development in both.
  • High quality phonic work is best means for securing word recognition.
  • High quality phonic work underpins comprehension – the ultimate goal.
‘Searchlights’
The ‘searchlights’ model (3 cueing system)… has not been effective enough in terms of illustrating where the intensity of the ‘searchlights’ should fall at different stages of learning to read. While the full range of strategies is used by fluent readers, beginning readers need to learn how to decode effortlessly, using their knowledge of letter-sound correspondences and the skills of blending them together.’ Ofsted reporting on the NLS in 2002.

WHEN SHOULD PHONIC WORK BEGIN?
‘When to introduce phonic work systematically is, and should be, a matter of principled, professional judgement, based on careful observation and robust assessment.’

DEVELOPING EARLY COMMUNICATION
  • Early years crucial for fostering communication skills
  • Parents have a crucial role to play
  • Valuable pre-reading activities – stories, songs, rhymes & drama – as part of rich curriculum
  • Speaking and listening key: foundation for reading (& writing)
  • Pave the way for systematic, high quality phonic work.
MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Children should benefit from a rich curriculum that develops speaking & listening and reading & writing.
  • Begin systematic, high quality phonic work for most by five, subject to professional judgement, as prime approach for learning to read.
  • Should be part of ‘quality first’ teaching which reduces need for intervention.
  • Children with difficulties should be identified early & appropriate support provided
  • Leaders & managers should ensure high quality phonic work is implemented & monitored regularly
  • Practitioner & teacher training should focus on principles of high quality phonic work
  • Parents have vital role & should be involved.
IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING
Those who teach beginner readers need to understand principles of high quality phonic work, including simple view of reading.

2. Primary National Strategy 2006 http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframeworks/
Return to tradition as phonics is favoured Times Ed Supplement 3 February 2006

Primary teachers across England are to be trained in using synthetic phonics to help children to read, in a return to traditional literacy teaching.

Each reception class teacher in a school could be given coaching in the technique, in which children build up words from letter sounds. Teacher training is also to be changed to place more emphasis on synthetic phonics.

The changes are expected in an update of the national literacy strategy’s teaching framework, to go out to consultation in April for implementation from September.

The Primary National Strategy (2006) has adopted the ‘simple view of reading’ . Children who routinely adopt alternative cues for reading unknown words, instead of learning to decode them, later find themselves stranded when texts become more demanding and meanings less predictable. For most children it starts by the age of 5 and is time-limited. Phonological skills (particularly phoneme awareness) underpin the development of word-decoding skills, especially phonics. Phonics is the prime approach to early reading. Word reading is generally achieved as a result of direct instruction. Initial task - master the alphabetic code. Apply their phonic knowledge to develop a store of familiar words. Develop automaticity in their word reading. Priority given to teaching word-reading processes in the early stages of learning to read. Decoding and comprehension are separate targets. Separate work on developing speaking and listening skills, phonemic awareness, vocabulary development and language comprehension. Provide many opportunities to practise their developing reading skills. Teachers assess children’s progress within both word recognition and language comprehension processes.

Development of word recognition skills Children need to be taught: letter/sound correspondences in a clearly defined, incremental sequence to apply the highly important skill of blending (synthesising) phonemes in their proper order, all through a word to read it to apply the skills of segmenting words into their constituent phonemes to spell them it is systematic, following a carefully planned programme with fidelity, reinforcing and building on previous learning to secure children’s progress it is taught discretely and daily at a brisk pace children’s progress in developing and applying their phonic knowledge is carefully assessed and monitored. Teachers should use texts that are restricted to letters and sounds already taught.

Four types of reader identified in the ‘simple view of reading’: those who have good comprehension but poor word recognition skills those who have good word recognition skills but poor comprehension those who are weak in both the above those who are strong in both the above. With the principles above, we can substantially reduce the number of children who fall below age-related expectations. Focus on quality-first teaching should reduce the need for intervention in many cases.

Phonic work given priority in the teaching of beginner readers. Training for staff in the necessary skills and knowledge to implement the programme effectively. The normal monitoring arrangements assure the quality and consistency of phonic work. Staff receive constructive feedback about their practice. Phonic work can be achieved by using a commercially produced programme, or Primary National Strategy materials. Program to be adhered to with fidelity,

Once words are recognised and understood, children must activate their oral language comprehension to understand what a writer conveys. Most new readers have an active vocabulary of some 10,000 words (Labov, 2003).

Teaching must be systematic, with a clearly defined and structured progression for learning all the major grapheme–phoneme correspondences: digraphs, trigraphs, adjacent consonants, and alternative graphemes for the same sound be delivered in discrete daily sessions at a brisk pace that is well matched to children’s developing abilities be underpinned by a synthetic approach to blending phonemes in order all through a word to read it, and segmenting words into their constituent phonemes to spell them Blending and segmenting need to be taught explicitly Independent quality assurance system to assess commercial phonics programmes (2007).

In Australia, the 2005 Nelson Report of the National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy produced findings consonant with those accepted in both GB and the USA. Read the literature review, the report, and the recommendations.

USA House Concurrent Resolution 214 expressing the sense of Congress that direct, systematic phonics instruction should be used in all schools. http://www.nrrf.org/h_con_res_214.htm

The Reading Excellence Act (1998) in the USA insists that only reading programs based son reliable replicable research will be federally funded in future. Never mind the alliteration, read about it at: http://www.ed.gov/inits/FY99/1-read.html

U.S. Department of Education.(1999, July).America Reads Challenge - Start early, finish strong Teachers need to understand the most up-to-date reading research and be able to implement it in their classrooms. Universities, colleges of education, state teacher licensing boards, and legislatures must raise standards for proficiency in reading instruction for teacher candidates. [On-line]. Available at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/startearly/
“I hope we can come together as a nation to cheer on the elimination of the reading deficit for all our children. The Reading Deficit Elimination Act is an important step in that direction. The reading deficit can be eliminated by 2005 if the scientific principles of reading instruction, as determined by the National Reading Panel through the most comprehensive review of research in reading instruction ever conducted, are applied to all students, kindergarten through grade four, in America. To achieve this goal, it will take the concerted effort of parents, teachers, administrators, school board members, and legislators at both state and federal levels.

Committee on Education and the Workforce (2000). The Reading Deficit Elimination ActH.R. 4307. [On-Line]. Available at: http://edtech.connect.msu.edu/aera/gov/archive/n0400-05.htm

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001:On January 8, 2002, President Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The Act, which embodies his education reform plan sent to Congress on January 23, 2001, is the most sweeping reform of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) since ESEA was enacted in 1965. It redefines the federal role in K-12 education and will help close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and minority students and their peers. It is based on four basic principles: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work. See at: http://www.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml?src=mr

Early Detection of Dyslexia in Children Act of 2003.1O7th CONGRESS 1st Session in the US House of Representatives H. R. 73 January 3, 2001.

Further resources

The Reading Coherence Initiative (RCI) is a project funded under Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. The primary goal of the RCI was to provide research and development that would link current knowledge of the reading process to classroom practice of K-2 educators. Some excellent articles and descriptions of a broad range of educational assessments (over 125 reading assessment tools). [On-Line]. Available: http://www.sedl.org/pitl/rci/

There are many articles on educational issues maintained on the Education News page by Jimmy Kilpatrick. http://www.educationnews.org/commentaries_and_reports.htm

A most useful annotated bibliography by Susan Bradyprovides lists of research articles supporting (or failing to support) a range of common educational assertions. “A roadmap for the literature on reading acquisition and reading disability: Discovering the research and the implications for practice”. www.greenwoodinstitute.org/roadmap/rdmindex.html

The National Right to Read Foundationhttp://www.nrrf.org has a marvelous collection of links and articles:

Whole Language lives on: The illusion of "balanced" reading instruction - by Louisa Moats. http://www.edexcellence.net/library/wholelang/moats.html

Pathways to School Improvementhttp://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/

Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) http://www.lafayette.edu/allanr/psi.html

Letterland: An interesting approach to teaching the link between phonemes and letter names http://www.letterland.com/

Dyslexia and Learning Disabilities Resources

LD in Depth. Many articles on learning disabilities, dyslexia, and reading development at: http://www.ldonline.org/

Issues for teachers and researchers.Good articles at: http://www.greenwood.org

A useful paper on Reading Disorders In Children on the webpage of The Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology at The Children's Hospital of Buffalo. [On-Line]. Available at: http://members.aol.com/scottolitsky/dyslex.htm

Note this extract from the Summary: “All current research indicates that dyslexia is a disorder of language. A defect in language processing causes the reading disability. Vision problems DO NOT cause reading difficulties.”

The following links are taken from:

Lewis, L. & Paik, S. (2001). Add it up: Using research to improve education for low-income and minority students. Washington: Poverty & Race Research Action Council. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.prrac.org/pubs_aiu.php

The U.S. Department of Education’s Technical Assistance Network. Maintained by the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, the Technical Assistance Network is an integrated system of national and regional service providers of technical assistance and information designed to help states, school districts and schools to improve teaching and learning for all children. NCBE has developed the Technical Assistance Network Directory, which is a compilation of contact and profile information on state and federally sponsored technical assistance providers, including the “Starting Points” listed below, organized by state/territory. Available at http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/expert/TA/tan/directory.htm

STARTING POINTS Comprehensive Centers provide technical assistance services focused on the implementation of reform programs, prioritizing services for Title I schoolwide programs and other high-poverty schools and districts. Comprehensive Center Network consists of fifteen centers serving different regions throughout the country. Information available http://www.ed.gov/programs/newccp/index.html

Equity Assistance Centers provide technical assistance to promote educational equity in the areas of race, gender and national origin. There are ten Equity Assistance Centers serving different regions of the country. Information available at www.equitycenters.org

Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Clearinghouses provide ready access to an extensive body of education-related research literature. The sixteen subject-specific ERIC Clearinghouses collect, abstract and index education materials for the ERIC database, respond to requests for information in their areas of expertise, and develop special publications on current research, programs and practices. Information available at www.eric.ed.gov

Federal Resource Center for Special Education (FRC) supports a technical assistance network that responds to the needs of students with disabilities, with a special focus on students from underrepresented populations. The six Regional Resource Centers for Special Education (RRCs) assist state education agencies in their region improve programs, practices and policies affecting students with disabilities. Information available at www.rrfcnetwork.org

Parent Information and Resource Centers (PIRCs) help families, communities and schools collaborate to support children’s learning, with the objective of initiating and expanding opportunities for parents to be involved with their children’s learning. Each PIRC serves the state or region within the state in which is it located and is required to identify and serve areas with high concentrations of low-income, minority and limited English proficient families. Information available at www.ed.gov/Family/ParentCtrs/index.html or

Regional Educational Laboratories work to ensure that those involved in school improvement efforts have access to the best available information from research and practice. The ten Regional Educational Laboratories offer region-specific services as well as develop expertise in particular Specialty Areas to provide information and resources to schools and communities throughout the nation. Information available at www.relnetwork.org

Technical Assistance Alliance for Parent Centers (the Alliance) provides technical assistance for establishing, developing and coordinating Parent Training and Information Projects (PTIs) and Community Parent Resource Centers (CPRCs) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). These centers provide information and training to parents of and professionals who work with children with disabilities. Information available at www.taalliance.org

Building Your Baby’s Brain: A Parent’s Guide to the First Five Years. This Teaching Strategies guide, listed on the National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education website, explains some of the findings from brain research and strategies to support development. Available in English and Spanish at www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/ECI/publications.html

Child Care Checklist for Parents. This resource from Child Care That Works of Iowa State University Extension helps identify information parents might need when looking for child care. Available from the National Network for Child Care website at http://cyfernet.ces

Criteria for Quality Standards. Achieve, Inc., describes the criteria it uses in benchmarking academic standards. Each category of criteria is followed by a set of questions that you can consider to examine your state’s standards. Achieve’s website also contains an extensive, searchable content standards database in the subjects of English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. Available at http://www.achieve.org/

Designing a Sustainable Standards-Based Assessment System. This publication focuses on the organizational elements of a school system, such as purpose, principles, policies. It describes a process of examining and clarifying these elements in ways to support and sustain a standards-based assessment system. Available at www.mcrel.org/products/standards/designing.asp

Developing Family/School Partnerships: Guidelines for Schools and School Districts. The National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education (NCPIE) has identified general guidelines for policies and program elements that support the development of successful family/school partnerships. Available from NCPIE, http://www.ncpie.org/

Developmental Milestones: How I Grow In Your Care. ZERO TO THREE designed three charts for parents and caregivers outlining children’s learning processes during their earliest years of life. Available at http://www.zerotothree.org/

Ear Infections and Language Development. This booklet from the National Center for Early Development & Learning provides information regarding ear infections and middle ear fluid. It explains how hearing and language learning may be affected by ear infections and how you can support children’s language learning. Available at http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~ncedl/PAGES/products.cfm

The Education Trust and K-16 Councils. The Education Trust has helped develop a national network of K-16 councils at local and state levels. K-16 councils bring together school, college, business and community leaders to support the academic achievement of all children at all levels. Additional information available at www.edtrust.org

Enhancing the Transition to Kindergarten: Linking Children, Families, & Schools. This manual describes a school-based approach to enhancing connections during the transition to kindergarten. It presents a framework, key principles, strategies and practices for developing a community transition plan. Available at http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~ncedl/PAGES/products.cfm

Equity Checklists in Mathematics and Science. The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse has made available several checklists and rubrics to help schools and communities identify equity issues in the teaching of mathematics and science. Available at http://www.goenc.com/

Every Child Reading: An Action Plan and Every Child Mathematically Proficient: an Action Plan. The Learning First Alliance has developed a guides for supporting literacy and math proficiency, with tips for parents, teachers and schools. Available at http://www.learningfirst.org/publications/reading/

Every Single Student: A PEER Resource Manual on Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities. From the PEER (Parents Engaged in Education Reform) project, a special project of the Federation for Children with Special Needs, this publication covers a broad range of topics relevant to standards-based education and students with special needs. Available at http://www.fcsn.org/peer/ess/esshome.html www.fcsn.org/peer/ess/esshome.html

Family Involvement in Children’s Education: Successful Local Approaches, An Idea Book. This publication was produced by Policy Studies Associates and the National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students. It describes approaches that have been effective at overcoming barriers to family involvement. Available at www.ed.gov/pubs/FamInvolve/index.html

High Quality Professional Development. This booklet from the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory discusses professional development, guiding principles and some questions to consider when making choices. Available at www.nwrel.org/request/june98/article1.html

Implementing IDEA: A Guide for Principals.This guide from the IDEA Partnerships Project discusses implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in accordance with standards and guidelines developed by the National Association of Elementary School Principals. Available at http://www.cec.sped.org/law_res/doc/resources/alpha.php

Implementing Schoolwide Programs: An Idea Book on Planning. This guidebook from the U.S. Department of Education focuses on methods and useful resources for planning and measuring the effectiveness of schoolwide programs. Available at www.ed.gov/pubs/Idea_Planning/index.html

Investing in Partnerships for Student Success: A Basic Tool for Community Stakeholders to Guide Educational Partnership, Development and Management. Prepared by Susan Otterbourg for the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, this tool provides basic guidance to planning, developing, implementing and managing partnerships in education. Available at www.ed.gov/pubs/investpartner/

Measure of School, Family and Community Partnerships. The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory developed this tool to help schools assess the effectiveness and meaningfulness of their outreach to students, families, and community members. Available at www.ncrel.org/csri/nine/six.htm

A Parent’s Guide to Accessing Programs for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Disabilities. The National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities developed this parent’s guide for families who are seeking help for their young children with special needs. It provides information regarding early intervention services for children ages birth through 2 years old and special education and related services for children ages 3 through 5 years old. Available at www.nichcy.org/pubs/parent/pa2.htm

A Toolkit Using Data for Decision-Making to Improve Schools: Raise Student Achievement by Incorporating Data Analysis in School Planning. The New England Comprehensive Assistance Center developed this guidebook for collecting, understanding, and using data to improve school programs designed to raise student achievement. The toolkit provides resources that help create and revise school action plans, from assembling baseline data to monitoring ongoing progress. Available at www.edc.org/NECAC/resources/pubs/toolkit.html

ToolKit98 (and ToolKit98 Addendum 2000). Developed by the Network of Regional Educational Laboratories, this guide is designed to help classroom teachers improve the way they assess student learning. Available at www.nwrel.org/assessment/toolkit98.php

Tools for Schools: School Reform Models Supported by the National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students. The National Institute is a part of the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Research and Improvement. This guide describes 27 school reform models, providing information about comprehensive school reform models, classroom and curriculum redesign models, and professional development reform models. Available at www.ed.gov/pubs/ToolsforSchools/index.html

The Use of Tests as Part of High-Stakes Decision- Making for Students: A Resource Guide for Educators and Policy-Makers. This resource, developed by the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights, provides information regarding test measurement standards, legal principles, and resources to assist educators and policymakers understand ways to use standardized tests that are educationally sound and legally appropriate. Available at www.ed.gov/offices/OCR/archives/testing/TestingResource.doc

What It Takes: 10 Capacities for Initiating and Sustaining School Improvement. From the Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory, also known as the LAB at Brown University, this guidebook is designed to help schools reflect upon their organizational capacities for developing and maintaining successful reforms. Available at www.alliance.brown.edu/topics/reform.shtml

Contact Information

Electronic mail address: kerry.hempenstall@rmit.edu.au
Office phone: 03 9925 7522
FAX number: 03 9925 7303
Postal Address:
Division of Psychology
School of Health Sciences
RMIT University
PO Box 71, Bundoora VIC 3083
Australia


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