7 janvier 2012

La leçon de choses, par Pierre Kahn

Naissance de l'enseignement des sciences à l'école primaire Pierre KAHN

Quatrième de couverture
La loi du 28 mars 1882, celle-même qui établit l'obligation d'instruction et la laïcité des enseignements, prévoit l'introduction dans les programmes obligatoires de l'école primaire des sciences physiques et naturelles. Quel sens peut avoir pour l'école républicaine cette nouveauté ? N'est-ce que l'aboutissement normal d'une scolarisation primaire organisée depuis Guizot, ou bien est-ce un indice significatif du "nouveau régime" que Jules Ferry annonçait pour l'école ? Rupture ou continuité ? L'analyse fait apparaître une tension remarquable entre la réalité des prescriptions (textes officiels, programmes, etc.), qui maintiennent les sciences dans la tradition modeste et utilitaire de l'école du peuple, et les représentations idéales d'un projet éducatif et culturel qui se veut inédit et qui tend à enrôler l'enseignement scientifique primaire au service de l'humanisme moral, rationaliste, laïque et scientiste qui a marqué la IIIe République naissante.
L'analyse de la leçon de choses, méthode exemplaire et universellement préconisée d'un tel enseignement, témoigne de cette tension dialectique originale entre le rêve et la réalité de l'éducation scientifique primaire.



L'enseignement scientifique primaire de Guizot à Ferry :
entre rupture et continuité

Chapitre premier : Les fruits controversés du savoir
1.     Guizot : les débuts
2.     La loi Falloux : les sciences facultatives ou comment limiter l’instruction du peuple
3.     Le primat de la pratique ou l’éducation inutile
4.     Les sciences et la culture ou le sens d’une dénégation

Chapitre II : La seconde préhistoire de l’enseignement scientifique primaire
1.     Le « moment Duruy » ou le temps des pédagogues
2.     Un premier seuil d’éducation scientifique
3.     La science des enfants

Chapitre III : L’âge républicain de l’enseignement des sciences : un deuxième seuil d’éducation scientifique
1.     1878. Le tournant de l’Exposition universelle
2.     L’ère des manuels
3.     La notion de sciences « usuelles »
4.     De l’accessoire à l’essentiel ou le rêve de Jules Ferry

La leçon des choses

Chapitre premier : Histoire d’une leçon de choses
1.     Les figures indécises de la leçon de choses
2.     Leçon de choses et méthode intuitive
3.     Géopédagogie de la leçon de choses
4.     de la salle d’asile à la science
5.     L’irréductible ambiguïté de la leçon de choses

Chapitre II : Epistémologie de la leçon de choses
1.     Une formation de l’esprit scientifique ? ou l’enseignement des sciences entre le jour et la nuit
2.     L’enseignement scientifique du primaire au secondaire : une secrète continuité ?
3.     La notion de savoir élémentaire
4.     Auguste Comte à l’école primaire

Chapitre III : La science vertueuse ou l’eudémonisme républicain
1.     Les vertus intellectuelles de l’enseignement scientifique
2.     La valeur morale de la science
3.     Education scientifique et laïcité

1.     Validation de l’hypothèse forte
2.     Un modèle de savoir pour l’école
3.     Les sciences dans l’idéologie scolaire de la République


On peut consulter des extraits du livre sur Google Books : http://books.google.fr/books?id=Rj0XPvuWwIAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=le%C3%A7on+de+choses+pierre+kahn&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=oJMIT7baDIm5hAeSxKyXCQ&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=le%C3%A7on%20de%20choses%20pierre%20kahn&f=false

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